Alpine bitter-cress Cardamine oligosperma, copyright Walter Siegmund.

Belongs within: Brassicaceae.

Cardamine, bitter-cress, is a genus of herbaceous plants found in most regions of the world (Hickman 1993).

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Annual, biennial or perennial, from taproots, fibrous roots, or tuber-like rhizomes; hairs absent or simple. Leaves entire or palmately or pinnately lobed to compound; rhizome leaves often present, separate from others. Inflorescence bracted or not. Flower with sepals equal at base; petals white to pink or rose. Fruit linear, generally flat; valves generally opening elastically, sometimes by coiling from base; septum margins intruding on valves. SEEDS many, one row per chamber, wingless (rarely more or less margined); embryonic root at edges of both cotyledons.

<==Cardamine Linnaeus 1753 A61
|–C. amara H64
|–C. angulata H93
|–C. bellidifolia H93
|    |–C. b. var. bellidifolia H93
|    `–C. b. var. pachypylla H93
|–C. bilobata Kirk 1899 A61
|–C. breweri H93
|    |–C. b. var. breweri H93
|    `–C. b. var. orbicularis H93
|–C. bulbosa S72
|–C. californica [=Dentaria californica] H93
|    |–C. c. var. californica H93
|    |–C. c. var. cardiophylla [=Dentaria californica var. cardiophylla] H93
|    |–C. c. var. cuneata [=Dentaria californica var. cuneata] H93
|    |–C. c. var. integrifolia [=Dentaria californica var. integrifolia] H93
|    `–C. c. var. sinuata [=Dentaria californica var. sinuata] H93
|–C. circaeoides D07
|–C. cordifolia H93
|    |–C. c. var. cordifolia H93
|    `–C. c. var. lyallii H93
|–C. corymbosa Hook. f. 1844 [=C. hirsuta var. corymbosa Hook. f. 1864] A61
|–C. debilis Banks ex DC. 1821 (see below for synonymy) A61
|–C. depressa Hooker 1844 [incl. C. depressa var. acaulis Hoker 1844] A61
|    |–C. d. var. depressa A61
|    `–C. d. var. stellata Hooker 1864 [=C. stellata Hooker 1844] A61
|–C. flexuosa H90 [=C. scutata ssp. flexuosa O88]
|–C. griffithii O88
|–C. gunnii H90
|–C. hirsuta PT01
|–C. impatiens O88
|–C. intermedia H90
|–C. lilacina H90
|–C. loxostemonoides O88
|–C. macrophylla O88
|    |–C. m. ssp. macrophylla O88
|    `–C. m. ssp. polyphylla O88
|–C. nuttallii H93
|    |–C. n. var. nuttallii [incl. C. pulcherrima var. tenella] H93
|    |–C. n. var. covilleana [incl. Dentaria tenella var. palmata] H93
|    |–C. n. var. dissecta [=C. tenella var. dissecta] H93
|    `–C. n. var. gemmata [=Dentaria gemmata] H93
|–C. occidntalis H93
|–C. oligosperma H93
|–C. ovata D03
|–C. pachystigma [=Dentaria pachystigma] H93
|    |–C. p. var. pachystigma H93
|    `–C. p. var. dissectifolia [=Dentaria pachystigma var. dissectifolia] H93
|–C. paucijuga GK00
|–C. pensylvanica H93
|–C. pratensis SBM11
|–C. scutata O88
|–C. subcarnosa (Hook. f.) Allan 1961 (see below for synonymy) A61
|–C. tenuifolia H90
|–C. trifoliolata O88
|–C. uniflora (Hook. f.) Allan 1961 (see below for synonymy) A61
`–C. xanthina Colenso 1899 A61

Cardamine debilis Banks ex DC. 1821 [=C. hirsuta var. debilis Banks ex Hook. f. 1864; incl. Sisymbrium heterophyllum Forst. f. 1786, C. heterophylla (Forst. f.) Schulz 1903 non Wood 1870, C. debilis var. hirtella Schulz 1903, C. debilis var. leiocarpa Schulz 1903, C. debilis proles macrantha Schulz 1903, C. debilis var. macrostylis Schulz 1903] A61

Cardamine subcarnosa (Hook. f.) Allan 1961 [=C. hirsuta var. subcarnosa Hook. f. 1844, C. glacialis var. subcarnosa (Hook. f.) Schulz 1903] A61

Cardamine uniflora (Hook. f.) Allan 1961 [=C. hirsuta var. uniflora Hook. f. 1864, C. heterophylla var. uniflora (Hook. f.) Ckn. 1909] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 79–88.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[H64] Hogg, J. 1864. List of rarer phanerogamous plants discovered in the south-east of Durham since 1829. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33 (Notices and Abstracts): 96.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PT01] Pemberton, L. M. S., S.-L. Tsai, P. H. Lovell & P. J. Harris. 2001. Epidermal patterning in seedling roots of eudicotyledons. Annals of Botany 87: 649–654.

[S72] Shields, O. 1972. Flower visitation records for butterflies (Lepidoptera). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (3): 189–203.

[SBM11] Solomon, E. P., L. R. Berg & D. W. Martin (eds) 2011. Biology 9th ed. Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.

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