Carduelinae

Yellow canaries Serinus flaviventris, copyright Jaffles.

Belongs within: Fringillidae.
Contains: Drepanidini, Carpodacus, PyrrhulaChloris, Loxia, Acanthis, Carduelis, Serinus, Spinus, Crithagra.

The Carduelinae are a group of finches found in Eurasia, Africa and the Americas. They have upper bills that are generally distinctly longer than the lower bill, and a well-developed crop that is used to store food. Nestlings are fed on regurgitated seeds rather than on insects. Notable members include the hawfinches and grosbeaks of the genus Coccothraustes which have a particularly heavy beak used for cracking seeds and fruit kernels.

<==Carduelinae [Carduelidae, Carduelina, Carduelini]SA82
    |--+--MycerobasZP-J12
    |  |    |--M. affinisJF06
    |  |    |--M. carnipesJF06
    |  |    |--M. icterioides [=Perrisospiza icteroides]G73
    |  |    `--M. melanozanthosJT12
    |  `--+--Hesperiphona vespertinaZP-J12 [=Coccothraustes vespertinusJF06]
    |     `--+--EophonaZP-J12
    |        |    |--E. migratoriaJF06
    |        |    `--E. personataJF06 [=Coccothraustes personatusT89]
    |        `--+--‘Emberiza’ affinis Heuglin 1867BKB15, RJ11
    |           |    |--E. a. affinisRJ11
    |           |    |--E. a. nigeriae Bannerman & Bates 1926RJ11
    |           |    |--E. a. omoensis Neumann 1905RJ11
    |           |    `--E. a. vulpecula Grote 1921RJ11
    |           `--Coccothraustes Brisson 1760ZP-J12, M02 [Coccothraustinae]
    |                |--C. abeilleiJT12
    |                |--C. balcanicus Boev 1998M02
    |                |--C. coccothraustes (Linnaeus 1758)M02 [=Loxia coccothraustesM02; incl. L. majorF17]
    |                |--C. icteroidesV41
    |                |--C. japonicus Temm. & Schl. 1850M01 [=C. vulgaris japonicusM01, C. coccothraustes japonicusVP89]
    |                |--C. melanurusS42
    |                |--C. olivaceus Fraser 1842F42
    |                `--C. simeonovi Boev 1998M02
    `--+--+--+--DrepanidiniZP-J12
       |  `--+--+--Haematospiza sipahiZP-J12
       |     |  `--Erythrina Brehm 1829ZP-J12
       |     |       `--E. erythrina (Pallas 1770) (see below for synonymy)ZP-J12
       |     `--+--Chaunoproctus ferreorostris (Vigors 1829)ZP-J12, I92
       |        `--CarpodacusZP-J12
       `--+--+--+--PyrrhulaBKB15
          |  |  `--Pinicola Vieillot 1807ZP-J12
          |  |       `--P. enucleator (Linnaeus 1758)ZP-J12
          |  |            |--P. e. enucleatorSc05
          |  |            `--P. e. alascensisSc05
          |  `--+--+--RhodopechysZP-J12
          |     |  |    |--R. obsoletusJT12
          |     |  |    `--R. sanguineusJT12
          |     |  `--BucanetesZP-J12
          |     |       |--B. githagineusZP-J12
          |     |       `--B. mongolicus [=Eremopsaltria mongolicus]ZP-J12
          |     `--+--+--Agraphospiza Zuccon, Prŷs-Jones et al. 2012ZP-J12
          |        |  |    `--*A. rubescens (Blanford 1872) [=Carpodacus rubescens, Procarduelis rubescens]ZP-J12
          |        |  `--+--Callacanthis burtoniZP-J12
          |        |     `--Pyrrhoplectes epaulettaZP-J12
          |        `--+--Procarduelis Blyth 1843ZP-J12
          |           |    `--*P. nipalensis (Hodgson 1836) [=Carpodacus nipalensis]ZP-J12
          |           `--LeucosticteZP-J12
          |                |  i. s.: L. griseogenys Gould 1843G43
          |                |         L. sillemiJT12
          |                |--L. nemoricolaZP-J12 [=Fringilauda nemoricolaG73]
          |                `--+--L. brandtiJT12
          |                   `--+--L. arctoaJT12
          |                      `--+--L. tephrocotisJT12
          |                         `--+--L. atrataJT12
          |                            `--L. australisJT12
          `--+--Haemorhous Swainson 1837ZP-J12
             |    |--H. mexicanus (Statius Müller 1776) [=Carpodacus mexicanus ]ZP-J12
             |    |    |--H. m. mexicanusL81
             |    |    |--‘Carpodacus’ m. amplusMS55
             |    |    `--‘Carpodacus’ m. frontalisL81
             |    `--+--*H. purpureus (Gmelin 1789)ZP-J12 [=Fringilla purpureaSc05, Carpodacus purpureusZP-J12]
             |       `--H. cassinii (Baird 1854)ZP-J12 [=Carpodacus cassiniiBKB15]
             `--+--+--+--Rhodospiza obsoletaZP-J12
                |  |  `--RhynchostruthusZP-J12
                |  |       |--R. louisaeJT12
                |  |       |--R. percivaliJT12
                |  |       `--R. socotranusJT12
                |  `--ChlorisZP-J12
                `--+--+--+--Linaria Bechstein 1802ZP-J12, B94 [=Linota Bonaparte 1838CC10; Linariinae, Linotinae]
                   |  |  |    |--*L. cannabina (Linnaeus 1758)ZP-J12 (see below for synonymy)
                   |  |  |    |--L. flavirostris (Linnaeus 1758)ZP-J12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                   |  |  |    |--L. johannis (Clarke 1919) [=Carduelis johannis]ZP-J12
                   |  |  |    |--L. rufescens Vieillot 1816 [=Linota rufescens]CC10
                   |  |  |    `--L. yemenensis (Ogilvie-Grant 1913) [=Carduelis yemenensis]ZP-J12
                   |  |  `--+--LoxiaBKB15
                   |  |     `--AcanthisBKB15
                   |  `--+--+--CarduelisBKB15
                   |     |  `--Chrysocorythus Wolters 1967ZP-J12
                   |     |       `--C. estherae (Finsch 1902) (see below for synonymy)ZP-J12
                   |     `--+--SerinusBKB15
                   |        `--SpinusBKB15
                   `--+--Linurgus olivaceusZP-J12
                      `--CrithagraZP-J12

Chrysocorythus estherae (Finsch 1902) [=Crithagra estherae, Serinus estherae; incl. S. mindanensis Ripley & Rabor 1961, *Chrysocorythus estherae]ZP-J12

Erythrina erythrina (Pallas 1770) [=Loxia erythrina, Carpodacus erythrinus; incl. *Erythrina albifrons Brehm 1829]ZP-J12

*Linaria cannabina (Linnaeus 1758)ZP-J12 [=Fringilla cannabinaCC10, Carduelis cannabinaBKB15, *Linota cannabinaCC10; incl. F. linotaF17]

Linaria flavirostris (Linnaeus 1758)ZP-J12, CC10 [=Fringilla flavirostrisCC10, Carduelis flavirostrisBKB15, Linota flavirostrisCC10]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[F17] Forster, T. 1817. A synoptical catalogue of British birds; intended to identify the species mentioned by different names in several catalogues already extant. Forming a book of reference to observations on British ornithology. Nichols, Son, and Bentley: London.

[F42] Fraser, L. 1842. On new species of birds collected in the Niger expedition. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 144–145.

[G73] Gauntlett, F. M. 1973. Notes on some Kashmir birds. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (3): 591–615.

[G43] Gould, J. 1843. On nine new birds collected during the voyage of H.M.S. Sulphur. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11: 103–108.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[M01] Madarász, J. 1901. Madarak [Vögel]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 21–39. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[MS55] Mertens, R., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Die im Senckenberg-Museum vorhandenen Arten ausgestorbener, aussterbender oder seltener Vögel. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3–4): 241–265.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[RJ11] Rising, J. D., A. Jaramillo, J. L. Copete, P. G. Ryan & S. C. Madge. 2011. Family Emberizidae (buntings and New World sparrows). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 428–683. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[S05] Schalow, H. 1905. Die Vögel der Arktis. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 79–288. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[SA82] Sibley, C. G., & J. E. Ahlquist. 1982. The relationships of the Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepaninini) as indicated by DNA-DNA hybridization. Auk 99: 130–140.

[S42] Strickland, H. E. 1842. Account of the birds in the Chinese collection exhibited at Hyde Park Corner. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 166–168.

[T89] Takeshita, N. 1989. Nihon no Yachoo. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[V41] Vigne, G. T. 1841. Relating to a collection of birds formed in Thibet and Cashmere. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 9: 6–7.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

[ZP-J12] Zuccon, D., R. Prŷs-Jones, P. C. Rasmussen & P. G. P. Ericson. 2012. The phylogenetic relationships and generic limits of finches (Fringillidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 62: 581–596.

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