Fossil of Idiornis tuberculata at the Musée d’Histoire Naturelle, Brussels, copyright Ghedoghedo.

Belongs within: Telluraves.
Contains: Phorusrhacidae.

The Cariamiformes contain the modern Cariamidae (seriemas), long-legged primarily carnivorous birds, and related fossil taxa. Two living species are found in South America from central Brazil to northern Argentina, with the crested seriema Cariama cristata found in open pampas and Burmeister’s seriema Chunga burmeisteri in sparse forest. Cariamiformes were more diverse in the past with fossil representatives including the North American Bathornithidae, the European Idiornithidae, and the primarily South American Phorusrhacidae.

Synapomorphies (from Mayr 2002): Coracoid with processus procoracoideus fused to processus acrocoracoideus; tarsometatarsus with hypotarsus block-like, plantar prominence without well developed sulci.

<==Cariamiformes [Cariamae, Cariamides, Cariamoidea, Stereornithes]
|–Salmila Mayr 2000 M09, Ma02 [Salmilidae]
|    `–*S. robusta Mayr 2000 Ml02
`–+–+–Phorusrhacidae M05a
|  `–Cariamidae [Agnopteridae, Cariaminae, Dicholophidae, Microdactylidae] M05a
|       |–Chunga Hartlaub 1860 L98
|       |    `–C. burmeisteri JT12
|       `–Cariama Brisson 1760 L98 (see below for synonymy)
|            `–C. cristata AH03
`–Idiornithidae [Idiornithinae] M05a
|–Elaphrocnemus Milne-Edwards 1892 AH03, Ml02
|    |–*E. phasianus Milne-Edwards 1892 Ml02, AH03, Ml02
|    |–E. brodkorbi Mourer-Chauviré 1983 M09 [=Talantatos brodkorbi Ml02]
|    `–E. crex Milne-Edwards 1892 M09
|–Idiornis Oberholser 1899 [=Orthocnemus Milne-Edwards 1892 non Jekel 1857] Ml02
|    |–*I. gallicus (Milne-Edwards 1892) (see below for synonymy) Ml02
|    |–I. anthracinus Mayr 2002 M09
|    |–I. cursor (Milne-Edwards 1892) M09 [=Orthocnemus cursor Ml02]
|    |–I. gaillardi Cracraft 1973 M09
|    |–I. gracilis (Milne-Edwards 1892) M09 [=Elaphrocnemus gracilis Ml02, Agnopterus gracilis Ml02]
|    |–I. itardiensis Mourer-Chauviré 1983 M09 [=Agnopterus itardiensis Ml02]
|    |–I. minor (Milne-Edwards 1892) M09 [=Orthocnemus minor Ml02, Agnopterus minor Ml02]
|    `–I. tuberculata Peters 1995 JM14, Ml02 [=Agnopterus tuberculatus Ml02]
|–Occitaniavis Mourer-Chauviré 1983 [=Geranopsis Milne-Edwards 1892 non Lydekker 1891] Ml02
|    `–*O. elatus (Milne-Edwards 1892) Ml02, M09 [=*Geranopsis elatus Ml02, Propelargus elatus Ml02]
|–Oblitavis Mourer-Chauviré 1983 Ml02
|    `–*O. insolitus Mourer-Chauviré 1983 Ml02, M09 [=Propelargus insolitus Ml02]
`–Propelargus Lydekker 1891 M05b
|–*P. cayluxensis Lydekker 1891 Ml02
`–P. olseni VR72

Cariamiformes incertae sedis:
Bathornithidae AH03
|–Eutreptornis uintae Cracraft 1971 M09
|–Paracrax M09
|    |–P. antiqua (Marsh 1871) M09
|    |–P. gigantea Cracraft 1968 M09
|    `–P. wetmorei Cracraft 19687 M09
`–Bathornis Wetmore 1927 Ml02 [incl. Neocathartes Wetmore 1944 D07]
|–B. celeripes Wetmore 1933 M09
|–B. cursor Wetmore 1933 M09
|–B. fricki Cracraft 1968 M09
|–B. geographicus Wetmore 1942 M09
|–B. grallator (Wetmore 1944) [=Neocathartes grallator] M09
`–B. veredus Wetmore 1927 M09 [incl. Palaeocrex fax (Wetmore 1927) M09, Bathornis fax M07]
Strigogyps Gaillard 1908 M05a (see below for synonymy)
|–*S. dubius Gaillard 1908 Ml02 [incl. S. minor Gaillard 1939 M05b, *Ameghinornis minor Ml02]
|–S. robustus (Lambrecht 1935) M09 (see below for synonymy)
`–S. sapea (Peters 1987) M05b [=*Aenigmavis sapea Ml02]
Talantatos Reichenbach 1852 [=Tantalatos (l. c.); incl. Filholornis Milne-Edwards 1892] Ml02
|–*T. fossilis (Giebel 1847) (see below for synonymy) Ml02
`–T. proudlocki (Harrison & Walker 1979) [=Percolinus proudlocki] Ml02
‘Diatryma’ cotei Gaillard 1937 Ml02
Gradiornis Mayr 2007 M07
`–*G. walbeckensis Mayr 2007 M07

Cariama Brisson 1760 L98 [incl. Dicholophus Illiger 1811 B94, Microdactylus Geoffry St.-Hilaire 1809 B94]

*Idiornis gallicus (Milne-Edwards 1892) [=*Orthocnemus gallicus, Agnopterus gallicus; incl. Filholornis gravis Milne-Edwards 1892] Ml02

Strigogyps Gaillard 1908 M05a [incl. Aenigmavis Peters 1897 M05b, Ameghinornis Mourer-Chauviré 1981 M05b, Eocathartes Lambrecht 1935 M02, Geiseloceros Lambrecht 1935 M05a; Ameghinornithidae M05b, Ameginornithinae]

Strigogyps robustus
(Lambrecht 1935) M09 [=*Geiseloceros robustus Ml02; incl. *Eocathartes robustus Lambrecht 1935 M02, M09]

*Talantatos fossilis (Giebel 1847) [=Tantalus fossilis; incl. Filholornis debilis Milne-Edwards 1892, Orthocnemus major Milne-Edwards 1892, Idiornis major, *Filholornis paradoxa Milne-Edwards 1892, Telecrex peregrinus Mlíkovský 1989] Ml02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AH03] Alvarenga, H. M. F., & E. Höfling. 2003. Systematic revision of the Phorusrhacidae (Aves: Ralliformes). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 43 (4): 55–91.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[JM14] Jarvis, E. D., S. Mirarab, A. J. Aberer, B. Li, P. Houde, C. Li, S. Y. W. Ho, B. C. Faircloth, B. Nabholz, J. T. Howard, A. Suh, C. C. Weber, R. R. de Fonseca, J. Li, F. Zhang, H. Li, L. Zhou, N. Narula, L. Liu, G. Ganapathy, B. Boussau, M. S. Bayzid, V. Zavidovych, S. Subramanian, T. Gabaldón, S. Capella-Gutiérrez, J. Huerta-Cepas, B. Rekepalli, K. Munch, M. Schierup, B. Lindow, W. C. Warren, D. Ray, R. E. Green, M. W. Bruford, X. Zhan, A. Dixon, S. Li, N. Li, Y. Huang, E. P. Derryberry, M. F. Bertelsen, F. H. Sheldon, R. T. Brumfield, C. V. Mello, P. V. Lovell, M. Wirthlin, M. P. Cruz Schneider, F. Prosdocimi, J. A. Samaniego, A. M. Vargas Velazquez, A. Alfaro-Núñez, P. F. Campos, B. Petersen, T. Sitcheritz-Ponten, A. Pas, T. Bailey, P. Scofield, M. Bunce, D. M. Lambert, Q. Zhou, P. Perelman, A. C. Driskell, B. Shapiro, Z. Xiong, Y. Zeng, S. Liu, Z. Li, B. Liu, K. Wu, J. Xiao, X. Yinqi, Q. Zheng, Y. Zhang, H. Yang, J. Wang, L. Smeds, F. E. Rheindt, M. Braun, J. Fjeldså, L. Orlando, F. K. Barker, K. A. Jønsson, W. Johnson, K.-P. Koepfli, S. O’Brien, D. Haussler, O. A. Ryder, C. Rahbek, E. Willerslev, G. R. Graves, T. C. Glenn, J. McCormack, D. Burt, H. Ellegren, P. Alström, S. V. Edwards, A. Stamatakis, D. P. Mindell, J. Cracraft, E. L. Braun, T. Warnow, W. Jun, M. T. P. Gilbert & G. Zhang. 2014. Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds. Science 346 (6215): 1320–1331.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L98] Livezey, B. C. 1998. A phylogenetic analysis of the Gruiformes (Aves) based on morphological characters, with an emphasis on the rails (Rallidae). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 353: 2077–2151.

[Ma02] Mayr, G. 2002. A new specimen of Salmila robusta (Aves: Gruiformes: Salmilidae n. fam.) from the Middle Eocene of Messel. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 76 (2): 305–316.

[M05a] Mayr, G. 2005a. The Paleogene fossil record of birds in Europe. Biological Reviews 80: 515–542.

[M05b] Mayr, G. 2005b. “Old World phorusrhacids” (Aves, Phorusrhacidae): a new look at Strigogyps (“Aenigmavis“) sapea (Peters 1987). PaleoBios 25 (1): 11–16.

[M07] Mayr, G. 2007. The birds from the Paleocene fissure filling of Walbeck (Germany). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27 (2): 394–408.

[Ml02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[VR72] Vickers Rich, P. 1972. A fossil avifauna from the Upper Miocene Beglia Formation of Tunisia. Notes du Service Géologique 35: 29–66.

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