Cassiduloida

Lateral view of Pygurus montmollini, from here.

Belongs within: Irregularia.
Contains: Pliolampadidae, Nucleolitidae, Cassidulidae.

The Cassiduloida are a group of irregular echinoids with a more or less flat oral surface and rounded aboral surface, known from the Jurassic to the present (Kier 1966).

Characters (from Kier 1966): Ambulacra petaloid adapically; periproct outside apical system; phyllodes and bourrelets usually present; no jaws or gill slits in adult.

<==Cassiduloida
    |--+--NucleolitidaeK66
    |  |--CassidulidaeK66
    |  `--Apatopygus Hawkins 1920 [Apatopygidae]K66
    |       |--*A. recens (Edwards 1836) [=Nucleolites recens]K66
    |       `--A. vincentinusMM22
    `--ClypeidaeK66
         |--Bothryopneustes Fourtau 1924 [incl. Clypeobrissus Currie 1925]K66
         |    |--*B. lamberti Fourtau 1924K66
         |    `--B. somaliensis (Currie 1925) [=*Clypeobrissus somaliensis]K66
         `--+--Astrolampas Pomel 1883K66
            |    `--*A. productus (Agassiz 1836) [=Pygurus productus]K66
            `--+--Clypeus Leske 1778 (see below for synonymy)K66
               |    |--*C. plotii Leske 1778 [=*Echinoclypeus plotii]K66
               |    |--‘Nucleolites’ agassizi Wright 1851 [=*Crotoclypeus agassizi]K66
               |    |--C. michelini Wright 1854SG93 [=*Auloclypeus micheliniK66, Nucleolites micheliniK66]
               |    |--C. sinuatusK66
               |    `--C. wylliei Currie 1925 [=*Dactyloclypeus wylliei]K66
               `--+--Pseudopygurus Lambert 1911K66
                  |    `--*P. letteroni Lambert 1911K66
                  `--Pygurus Agassiz 1839 [incl. Echinanthites Leske 1778]K66
                       |  i. s.: P. lampassiformis Tzankov 1934SG93
                       |--P. (Mepygurus Pomel 1883)K66
                       |    `--P. (M.) depressus Agassiz 1847 [=P. (*M.) michelini Cotteau 1849]K66
                       `--+--P. (Pygurus)K66 [incl. Echinonaus de la Beche 1822A66, Echinopygus d’Orbigny 1856K66]
                          |    |--*P. (P.) montmollini (Agassiz 1836) [=Echinopygus montmollini]K66
                          |    `--‘Clypeaster’ oviformis Lamarck 1816 [=*Echinopygus oviformis]K66
                          `--P. (Pyguropsis de Loriol 1902)K66
                               `--P. (*P.) noetlingi de Loriol 1899K66
Cassiduloida incertae sedis:
  Archiaciidae [Archiacidae]K66
    |--Archiacia Agassiz 1847K66
    |    |--*A. sandalina Agassiz 1847K66
    |    `--A. hungarica Szőrény 1955SG93
    |--Claviaster d’Orbigny 1856SG93, K66 [incl. Passalaster Pomel 1883K66]
    |    |--*C. cornutus (Agassiz 1847) [=Archiacia cornuta]K66
    |    |--‘C. cornutus’ Pomel 1883 non Archiacia cornuta Agassiz 1847 [=*Passalaster cornutus]K66
    |    `--C. costatus Pomel 1883SG93
    `--Gentilia Lambert 1918 [incl. Thomasaster Lambert 1920, Thomasia Lambert 1918 non Poche 1908]K66
         |--*G. tafiletensis Lambert 1918K66
         |--‘Archiacia’ araidahensis Gauthier 1889 [=*Thomasaster araidahensis, *Thomasia araidahensis]K66
         |--G. chouberti Lambert 1937SG93
         `--G. syriensisK66
  PliolampadidaeK66
  Astropygaulus Checchia-Rispoli 1945K66
    `--*A. trigonopygus Checchia-Rispoli 1945K66
  Centropygus Ebray 1858 [=Antropygus (l. c.), Centroclypus (l. c.)]K66
    `--*C. guetinicus Ebray 1859 [=Antropygus guetinicus]K66
  Clypeanthus Cotteau 1894K66
    `--*C. pentagonalis (Fraas 1878) [=Toxaster pentagonalis]K66
  Echinanthus Leske 1778 (n. d.)K66
    |--*E. ivatus Leske 1778K66
    `--E. carinatusSB93
  Jolyclypus Lambert 1918K66
    `--*J. jolyi (Gauthier 1898) [=Galeropygus jolyi]K66
  Lovenilampas Maury 1934K66
    `--*L. baixadoleitensis (Maury 1934) [=Lovenia baixadoleitensis]K66
  Platipygus de Loriol 1902K66
    `--*P. posthumum (Ortmann 1901) [=Cyrtoma posthumum]K66
  Corystus Pomel 1883 (n. d.)A66
  ConoclypidaeSG93
    |--Oviclypeus Dames 1877WD66
    |    `--*O. lorioli Dames 1877WD66
    `--Conoclypus Agassiz 1839WD66
         |--*C. conoideus (Leske 1778) [=Clypeus conoideus]WD66
         |--C. aequidilatatusWD66
         |--C. flemmingiiK-M02
         |--C. leymerieiSG93
         |--C. rostratus (Duncan & Sladen 1884)SG93
         |--C. sanctispiritus Sánchez Roig 1949SG93
         `--C. sindensis (Duncan & Sladen 1882)SG93

Clypeus Leske 1778 [=Echinoclypeus de Blainville 1830; incl. Auloclypeus Pomel 1883, Crotoclypeus Pomel 1883, Dactyloclypeus Maccagno 1847]K66

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A66] Anon. 1966. Doubtful nominal genera of echinoids. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U633. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[K66] Kier, P. M. 1966. Cassiduloids. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U492–U523. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[K-M02] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002. Triggerfishes. Family Balistidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 590–592. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[MM22] McNamara, K. J., & S. Martin. 2022. Middle Eocene echinoids from the western Eucla Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 37: 31–56.

[SG93] Simms, M. J., A. S. Gale, P. Gilliland, E. P. F. Rose & G. D. Sevastopulo. 1993. Echinodermata. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 491–528. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SB93] Skelton, P. W., & M. J. Benton. 1993. Mollusca: Rostroconchia, Scaphopoda and Bivalvia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 237–263. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WD66] Wagner, C. D., & J. W. Durham. 1966. Holectypoids. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U440–U450. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

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