Castanopsis

Japanese chinquapin Castanopsis cuspidata, copyright Kenpei.

Belongs within: Fagaceae.

Castanopsis, the chinquapins, is a genus of trees found in tropical and subtropical eastern Asia. Many species are valued for their wood but a number have been threatened by over-logging.

Characters (from Flora of China): Trees evergreen. Winter buds ovoid to ellipsoid, with decussate scales. Stipules extrapetiolar. Leaves alternate, distichous, or for a few species spirally arranged. Inflorescences usually unisexual, erect, spicate or paniculate. Male flowers in fascicles of 3-7, rarely solitary and scattered; perianth 5- or 6(-8)-lobed; stamens (8 or)9-12; rudimentary pistil very small, densely covered with curved woolly hairs. Female flowers solitary or in clusters of 3-5(-7) per cupule; staminodes when present opposite perianth lobes; ovary 3-loculed; styles (2 or)3(or 4); stigmas punctiform or shallow terminal pores. Cupules solitary on rachis, actinomorphic or zygomorphic, rarely indehiscent, completely or partially enclosing nut; bracts sparsely to densely covering outside of cupule, spinelike or rarely scalelike or tubercles (cupule measurement always includes bracts). Nuts 1-3 per cupule, maturing after 2nd year or rarely in 1st year; abortive ovule apical. Germination hypogeal; cotyledons slightly convex, rarely cerebriform rugose.

<==Castanopsis
    |--C. acuminatissimaC78
    |--C. argenteaT-W89
    |--C. benthami Ettingshausen 1883F71
    |--C. cuspidata [=Quercus cuspidata]LO98
    |    |--C. c. var. cuspidataLO98
    |    `--C. c. var. sieboldiiLO98
    |--C. densinerviaH03
    |--C. endertiiH03
    |--C. griffithiiDD73
    |--C. indicaD07
    |--C. lancifoliaD07
    |--C. sclerophyllaLI89
    `--C. tribuloidesD07

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[C78] Clunie, N. M. U. 1978. The vegetation. In: Womersley, J. S. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 pp. 1–11. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 79–88.

[DD73] Deb, D. B., & R. M. Dutta. 1973. Contribution to the flora of Tirap Frontier Division. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (3): 547–573.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263–276.

[LI89] Liang L.-R. & K. Ishikawa. 1989. Occurrence of Gamasellus (Acarina, Gamasida, Ologamasidae) on Tian-mu Mountains in east China. Reports of Research, Matsuyama Shinonome Junior College 20: 143–152.

[T-W89] Tenison-Woods, J. E. 1889. On the vegetation of Malaysia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (1): 9–106, pls 1–9.

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