Catarrhini

Skull of Epipliopithecus vindobonensis, copyright James St John.

Belongs within: Anthropoidea.
Contains: Cercopithecidae, Hominoidea.

The Catarrhini are a clade of primates including the Old World monkeys and apes. Living members of this clade have downward-facing nostrils and two pairs each of upper and lower premolars.

<==Catarrhini [Catarrhina, Propliopithecidae, Propliopithecoidea]
    |--OligopithecidaeMA05
    |    |--Catopithecus Simons 1989SS13, G91
    |    |    `--C. browniSS13
    |    |--Talahpithecus Jaeger, Beard et al. 2010JB10
    |    |    `--*T. parvus Jaeger, Beard et al. 2010JB10
    |    `--Oligopithecus Simons 1962G91
    |         |--*O. savagei Simons 1962SAP78
    |         `--O. rogeriNG13
    `--+--Saadanius Zalmout, Sanders et al. 2010AA15, ZS10 [Saadaniidae, Saadanioidea]
       |    `--*S. hijazensis Zalmout, Sanders et al. 2010ZS10
       |--Propliopithecus Schlosser 1910 [incl. Aeolopithecus Simons 1965, Moeripithecus Schlosser 1911]SAP78
       |    |  i. s.: P. ankelae [=P. ankeli]G91
       |    |--P. markgrafi (Schlosser 1911)G91, SAP78 [=Moeripithecus markgrafiSP09]
       |    `--+--*P. haeckeli Schlosser 1911SAP78, SP09, SAP78
       |       `--+--P. chirobates (Simons 1965)SP09, SAP78 [=*Aeolopithecus chirobatesSAP78, G91]
       |          `--Aegyptopithecus Simons 1965NG13, SAP78
       |               `--*A. zeuxis Simons 1962SAP78
       `--+--Cercopithecoidea [Victoriapithecidae]SS13
          |    |  i. s.: Zaltanpithecus simonsiSS13
          |    |--Nsungwepithecus Stevens, Seiffert et al. 2013SS13
          |    |    `--*N. gunnelli Stevens, Seiffert et al. 2013SS13
          |    `--+--Prohylobates Fourtau 1918SS13, SD78
          |       |    `--P. tandyi Fourtau 1918 [incl. Dryopithecus mogharensis Fourtau 1918]SD78
          |       |--NoropithecusSS13
          |       |    |--N. bulukensisSS13
          |       |    |--N. fleagleiSS13
          |       |    `--N. kipsaramanensisSS13
          |       `--+--CercopithecidaeAA15
          |          `--Victoriapithecus von Koenigswald 1969SS13, SD78
          |               |--V. leakeyi von Koenigswald 1969SD78
          |               `--V. macinnesi von Koenigswald 1969SD78
          `--+--+--+--HominoideaSS13
             |  |  `--Kamoyapithecus hamiltoniZS10
             |  `--+--+--Laccopithecus robustusSS13
             |     |  `--Epipliopithecus vindobonensisAA15, SS13
             |     `--DendropithecidaeSS13
             |          |--Limnopithecus Hopwood 1933SS13, SAP78
             |          |    |--*L. legetet Hopwood 1933 [=Pliopithecus (Limnopithecus) legetet]SAP78
             |          |    `--L. evansi MacInnes 1943SS13, SAP78
             |          `--+--Dendropithecus Andrews & Simons 1977SS13, SAP78
             |             |    `--*D. macinnesi (Clark & Leakey 1950) (see below for synonymy)SAP78
             |             `--+--Simiolus enjiessiSS13
             |                `--Micropithecus clarkiSS13
             `--Pliopithecidae [Pliopithecoidea]G91
                  |--+--Dionysopithecus [Dionysopithecidae]AA15
                  |  |    `--D. shuangouensis Li 1978MA05
                  |  `--+--Barberapithecus huerzeleriAA15
                  |     `--CrouzeliinaeG91
                  |          |--CrouzeliaG91
                  |          |--PlesiopliopithecusG91
                  |          `--Anapithecus hernyakiAA15
                  `--PliopithecinaeG91
                       |--Lomorupithecus harrisoniSS13
                       `--Pliopithecus Gervais 1849SS13, SM93
                            |--P. antiquusSS13
                            |--P. canmatensisAA15
                            |--P. piveteauiD07
                            |--P. platydonD07
                            |--P. vindobonensisCC77
                            `--P. zhanxiangiD07

*Dendropithecus macinnesi (Clark & Leakey 1950) [=Limnopithecus macinnesi, Pliopithecus (Limnopithecus) macinnesi]SAP78

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AA15] Alba, D. M., S. Almécija, D. DeMiguel, J. Fortuny, M. Pérez de los Ríos, M. Pina, J. M. Robles & S. Moyà-Solà. 2015. Miocene small-bodied ape from Eurasia sheds light on hominoid evolution. Science 350 (6260): aab2625.

[CC77] Ciochon, R. L., & R. S. Corruccini. 1977. The phenetic position of Pliopithecus and its phylogenetic relationship to the Hominoidea. Systematic Zoology 26 (3): 290–299.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[G91] Groves, C. P. 1991. A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution, revised ed. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[JB10] Jaeger, J.-J., K. C. Beard, Y. Chaimanee, M. Salem, M. Benammi, O. Hlal, P. Coster, A. A. Bilal, P. Duringer, M. Schuster, X. Valentin, B. Marandat, L. Marivaux, E. Métais, O. Hammuda & M. Brunet. 2010. Late middle Eocene epoch of Libya yields earliest known radiation of African anthropoids. Nature 467: 1095–1098.

[MA05] Marivaux, L., P.-O. Antoine, S. R. H. Baqri, M. Benammi, Y. Chaimanee, J.-Y. Crochet, D. de Franceschi, N. Iqbal, J.-J. Jaeger, G. Métais, G. Roohi & J.-L. Welcomme. 2005. Anthropoid primates from the Oligocene of Pakistan (Bugti Hills): data on early anthropoid evolution and biogeography. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 102 (24): 8436–8441.

[NG13] Ni, X., D. L. Gebo, M. Dagosto, J. Meng, P. Tafforeau, J. J. Flynn & K. C. Beard. 2013. The oldest known primate skeleton and early haplorhine evolution. Nature 498: 60–64.

[SP09] Seiffert, E. R., J. M. G. Perry, E. L. Simons & D. M. Boyer. 2009. Convergent evolution of anthropoid-like adaptations in Eocene adapiform primates. Nature 461: 1118–1121.

[SAP78] Simons, E. L., P. Andrews & D. R. Pilbeam. 1978. Cenozoic apes. In: Maglio, V. J., & H. B. S. Cooke (eds) Evolution of African Mammals pp. 120–146. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[SD78] Simons, E. L., & E. Delson. 1978. Cercopithecidae and Parapithecidae. In: Maglio, V. J., & H. B. S. Cooke (eds) Evolution of African Mammals pp. 100–119. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[SS13] Stevens, N. J., E. R. Seiffert, P. M. O’Connor, E. M. Roberts, M. D. Schmitz, C. Krause, E. Gorscak, S. Ngasala, T. L. Hieronymus & J. Temu. 2013. Palaeontological evidence for an Oligocene divergence between Old World monkeys and apes. Nature 497: 611–614.

[SM93] Stucky, R. K., & M. C. McKenna. 1993. Mammalia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 739–771. Chapman & Hall: London.

[ZS10] Zalmout, I. S., W. J. Sanders, L. M. MacLatchy, G. F. Gunnell, Y. A. Al-Mufarreh, M. A. Ali, A.-A. H. Nasser, A. M. Al-Masari, S. A. Al-Sobhi, A. O. Nadhra, A. H. Matari, J. A. Wilson & P. D. Gingerich. 2010. New Oligocene primate from Saudi Arabia and the divergence of apes and Old World monkeys. Nature 466: 360–364.

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