Belongs within: Asclepiadoideae. The Marsdenieae are a clade of asclepiads united by molecular data. They were defined by Sennblad & Bremer (2002) as the most inclusive clade including Marsdenia and Hoya but not Asclepiadeae, Fockeeae or Ceropegieae. <==Marsdenieae |–+–‘Marsdenia’ verrucosaTGL-S08 | `–Rhyssolobium dumosumTGL-S08 |–+–Gongronema wallichiiTGL-S08 | `–Hoya Br. 1800TGL-S08, L95 | |–H. africanaC55 | |–H.… Continue reading Marsdenieae


Belongs within: Gentianales.Contains: Vinceae, Tabernaemontaneae, Aspidospermeae, Plumerieae, Apocynoidina. The Apocynaceae are a primarily pantropical and -subtropical group of flowering plants that are typically laticiferous and produce various alkaloids and cardenolides (Sennblad & Bremer 2002). Subgroups include the Willughbieae, characterised by a gynoecium that is congenitally syncarpous and indehiscent and that contains a fleshy pulp including… Continue reading Apocynaceae


Belongs within: Apocynaceae.Contains: Euapocynoidina. The Apocynoidina are a clade of flowering plants combining taxa historically separated as the subfamily Apocynoideae and the family Asclepiadaceae. Members of this clade are united by molecular phylogenetic analysis, as well as by the basal part of the anther connective (the retinacle) being adnate to the style head (Sennblad &… Continue reading Apocynoidina


Belongs within: Apocynoidina.Contains: Periplocoideae, Echiteae, Sarcostemma, Duvalia, Echidnopsis, Asclepiadoideae. The Euapocynoidina were defined by Sennblad & Bremer (2002) as the largest clade within Apocynaceae including Apocynum and Echites but not Malouetieae, Wrightieae or Nerieae. They are united by the possession of anthers that are adnate to the style head both by the retinacle and by the thecae (Sennblad… Continue reading Euapocynoidina


Belongs within: Euapocynoidina.Contains: Asclepiadeae, Marsdenieae, Ceropegieae. The Asclepiadoideae are a group of milkweeds possessing clasping translators with two pollinia per translator. As the Asclepiadoidina, they were defined by Sennblad & Bremer (2002) to represent the largest clade including Fockea and Asclepias but not Secamoneae. Members of this clade have been divided between four tribes, the… Continue reading Asclepiadoideae


Belongs within: Asclepiadoideae.Contains: Asclepias, Metastelmatinae. The Asclepiadeae are a clade of flowering plants supported by molecular phylogenetic analysis, defined by Sennblad & Bremer (2002) as the most expansive clade including Asclepias and Matelea but not members of the Fockeeae, Marsdenieae or Ceropegieae. Members include the twining shrubs of the genus Cynanchum, some of have the… Continue reading Asclepiadeae


Belongs within: Gentianales.Contains: Logania, Mitrasacme, Geniostoma. Loganiaceae are a morphologically diverse family of tropical and subtropical flowering plants, many of which bear whitish, fragrant flowers (Conn 1995). Characters (from Conn 1995): Trees, shrubs, woody climbers or herbs, sometimes epiphytic or hemi-epiphytic. Colleters, often present in axils of leaves, stipules and sepals. Leaves usually decussate; margin… Continue reading Loganiaceae


Belongs within: Gentianales.Contains: Canthium, Randia, Rubioideae, Ixoroideae, Cinchonoideae. The Rubiaceae are a cosmopolitan group of flowering plants usually bearing radial flowers with four-lobed corollas, often associated in tight cymes or clusters. Molecular phylogenies indicate a basal position within the family for Luculia, a genus of trees and shrubs found in the Himalayan region and southern China,… Continue reading Rubiaceae

Categorised as Gentianales


Belongs within: Rubioideae. The Coussareeae are a small but morphologically diverse group of flowering plants found in the Americas, many of which have tetramerous flowers, flattened berry-like or thin-walled capsular fruits, and flattened seeds (Bremer & Manen 2000). Neotropical rubioids I’m sure I’ve said this many times before but the advent of molecular analyses allowed… Continue reading Coussareeae


Belongs within: Rubiaceae. Canthium is a genus of deciduous, usually thorny shrubs and small trees found in the Old World tropics. Characters (from Flora of China): Shrubs or small trees, sometimes dioecious, sometimes with short shoots, unarmed or sometimes with paired straight supra-axillary thorns. Raphides absent. Leaves opposite, with or without domatia; stipules persistent or… Continue reading Canthium