Belongs within: Pentamerida. The Pentameridae were a family of brachiopods that lived from the Upper Ordovician to the Lower Devonian (Amsden & Biernat 1965). In some genera, such as Conchidium and Lissocoelina, the pedicle valve is distinctly rostrate, arching over the brachial valve. Characters (from Amsden & Biernat 1965, as Pentamerinae): Moderate to large size,… Continue reading Pentameridae


Belongs within: Rhynchonelliformea.Contains: Thecideida, Pentamerida, Rhynchonellida, Atrypida, Spiriferida, Terebratulida, Athyridida, Enteletida, Orthida. The Rhynchonellata are the clade of brachiopods that includes all surviving articulate species. They are distinguished from other articulate brachiopods by the presence of a pedicle rudiment and projecting brachiophores (Williams et al. 1996). The pedicle opening is generally unrestricted in the Orthida… Continue reading Rhynchonellata


Belongs within: Rhynchonellata.Contains: Koninckinidae, Dayiidae, Anoplothecidae, Retzioidea, Athyrisinidae, Delthyrididae, Hysterolitidae, Mucrospiriferinae, Suessioidea, Syringothyrididae, Spiriferinidae, Cyrtioidea, Reticularioidea, Cyrtospiriferoidea, Brachythyrididae, Spiriferidae, Costispiriferidae, Spiriferella. The Spiriferida were a lineage of brachiopods found from the Ordovician to the Jurassic (Prothero 1998). Many members of the spiriferidans in the Delthyridoidea and Spiriferidina possessed shells with broad lateral wings. The Delthyridoidea… Continue reading Spiriferida


Belongs within: Rhynchonellata.Contains: Atriboniidae, Stenoscismatidae, Dimerellidae, Norellidae, Rhynchotrematidae, Trigonirhynchidae, Eatoniidae, Uncinulidae, Rhynchonellidae, Oligorhynchiidae, Pugnacidae, Camarotoechiidae, Yunnanellidae, Wellerellidae, Basiliolidae, Hemithyrididae, Frieleiidae, Leptocoeliidae, Allorhynchiidae. The Rhynchonellida are a lineage of brachiopods that are first known from the Middle Ordovician, surviving into the present day (Ager et al. 1965). Members of the Middle Devonian to Upper Permian Stenoscismatacea… Continue reading Rhynchonellida


Belongs within: Athyridida.Contains: Athyris, Composita. The Athyrididae were a family of brachiopods that lived from the Upper Silurian to the Triassic. In members of the subfamilies Athyridinae and Diplospirellinae, a jugal saddle is present with bifurcations extending at least partway into the spiralia; this saddle is absent in the Protathyridinae. The jugal bifurcations terminate between… Continue reading Athyrididae


Belongs within: Spiriferida. The Mucrospiriferinae are a group of spiriferid brachiopods from the Devonian and Lower Carboniferous. Certain members of this group have been used as index fossils for sections of the Devonian of North America (Norris 1979). Characters (from Boucot 1975): Growth lamellae closely spaced, lamellose. Radial fimbriae or spines rarely observed, but present… Continue reading Mucrospiriferinae