Belongs within: Cyclorrhapha.Synapomorphies: Odiniidae, Periscelididae, Carnidae, Agromyzidae, Sphaeroceridae, Ephydroidea, Calyptratae, Tephritoidea, Chyromyidae, Opomyzidae, Sepsidae, Chloropidae, Milichiidae, Diopsidae, Canacidae, Nerioidea, Aulacigastridae, Tanypezoidea, Heleomyzidae, Sciomyzoidea, Lauxanioidea, Ropalomeridae, Asteiidae, Psilidae, Clusiidae, Pallopteridae. The Schizophora is a major clade of flies distinguished by the presence of the ptilinum, an eversible membrane in the head that is filled with fluid… Continue reading Schizophora


Belongs within: Sarcophagini.Contains: Sarcophaga (Heteronychia), Sarcophaga (Liosarcophaga), Sarcophaga (Sarcosolomonia), Sarcophaga (Sarcorohdendorfia). Sarcophaga is a cosmopolitan genus of generally large flies. Circumscription of this genus relative to others in the Sarcophagidae has been subject to some change with authors differing on whether various sarcophagid taxa should be treated as subgenera of Sarcophaga or as separate genera.… Continue reading Sarcophaga


Belongs within: Calyptratae.Contains: Atherigona, Azeliinae, Reinwardtiinae, Coenosiinae, Mydaeinae. The Muscidae, house flies, are a cosmopolitan group of ecologically diverse flies. Members are characterised by wings with vein A1 extending halfway to the wing margin and hind tibiae lacking a mid-dorsal bristle (Savage & Vockeroth 2010). Representatives include Achanthiptera rohrelliformis, a yellowish fly found in the… Continue reading Muscidae


Belongs within: Schizophora. The Sphaeroceridae are a family of small to minute flies often found on animal dung or other organic matter. They can usually be readily distinguished from other flies by the appearance of the first segment of the hind tarsus, which is distinctly swollen and/or shorter than the following segments (Colless & McAlpine… Continue reading Sphaeroceridae


Belongs within: Tephritoidea.Contains: Acanthonevrini, Bactrocera, Tephritis, Rhagoletis, Aciurina. The Tephritidae include the fruit flies, a number of species of which are significant agricultural pests. The greater number of species are fruit- or seed-feeders as larvae; a number of Phytalmyiinae are saprophages in habitats such as fallen wood or damaged bamboo and some Tephritinae feed within induced… Continue reading Tephritidae


Belongs within: Schizophora.Contains: Lonchaeidae, Richardiidae, Piophilidae, Ulidiidae, Tephritidae, Pyrgotidae. The Tephritoidea are a group of acalyptrate flies united by the reduction or loss of sternite 6 in the male, the presence in females of anterior rod-like apodemes on sternites 4 to 7, and division of the female tergosternite 7 into two sections, with the anterior… Continue reading Tephritoidea


Belongs within: Stratiomyomorpha.Contains: Stratiomyini, Oxycerini, Sarginae, Clitellariinae, Pachygastrinae. The Stratiomyidae, soldier flies, are an ecologically diverse group of often colourful flies. Larvae of the Stratiomyinae and Nemotelinae are aquatic whereas larvae of other subfamilies are terrestrial, mostly living in association with decaying plant or animal matter. As adults, the Chiromyzinae are markedly sexually dimorphic, with… Continue reading Stratiomyidae


Belongs within: Tephritoidea. The Pyrgotidae are a group of flies whose larvae are endoparasites of adult scarabaeid beetles. They may be divided between the subfamilies Pyrgotinae, in which sternites 1 and 2 are fused into a synsternite, and the Neotropical Teretrurinae, in which these sternites remain free (Hernández-Ortiz 2010). Within Pyrgotinae, members of the tribe… Continue reading Pyrgotidae


Belongs within: Ceratopogonidae. The Culicoidini are a group of biting midges whose females commonly feed on the blood of vertebrates, with some Culicoides species being vectors of parasites or viruses. Some species can be significant pests in the latter regard, with attacks from Culicoides furens in coastal regions in Central America being bad enough to… Continue reading Culicoidini


Belongs within: Phoridae. The Phorinae are a group of scuttle flies characterised by more or less distinct bristles on the tibiae, particularly a proximodorsal pair on the mid tibia (Peterson 1987). In the genus Stichillus, the ocelli are arranged nearly in a straight line rather than the more typical triangle, with the ocellar region demarcated… Continue reading Phorinae