Belongs within: Sternorrhyncha.Contains: Trioza, Chermes, Psyllinae, Spondyliaspinae, Ciriacreminae, Aphalarinae. The Psylloidea, jumping plantlice or lerp insects, are a group of small plant-sucking bugs, some of which are notable agricultural pests. Nymphs commonly inhabit protective structures, such as leaf galls induced in host plants or wax secretions produced from the abdomen. Psylloids first appear in the… Continue reading Psylloidea


Belongs within: Nanopsocetae.Contains: Philopteridae, Trichodectidae, Anoplura, Menoponidae, Ricinidae. The Phthiraptera, true lice, are a group of small, wingless insects that live as external parasites on warm-blooded vertebrates. Historically, they have been divided between the chewing or biting Mallophaga and the sucking Anoplura but the former are undoubtedly paraphyletic to the latter. Instead, the Amblycera, which… Continue reading Phthiraptera

Categorised as Psocodea


Belongs within: Heteroptera.Contains: Nepoidea, Corixidae, Naucoroidea, Notonectoidea, Leptopodomorpha, Cimicomorpha, Aradoidea, Pentatomoidea, Coreoidea, Lygaeidae, Rhyparochromidae. The Panheteroptera are a major clade of true bugs characterised by the division of the forewings between a sclerotised proximal corium and non-sclerotised distal membrane. Panheteropterans can be divided between three major clades, the mostly water-associated Nepomorpha and Leptopodomorpha and the more strongly… Continue reading Panheteroptera


Belongs within: Hemiptera.Contains: Heteroptera. The clade Heteropteroidea unites the true bugs of the Heteroptera with their living sister taxon, the Southern Hemisphere Peloridiidae. The peloridiids are flattened, broad-bodied bugs with widely-separated eyes on short peduncles, paranotal lobes on the pronotum, and forewings with net-like veins. They are found amongst moss and leaf litter in South… Continue reading Heteropteroidea


Belongs within: Cimicomorpha.Contains: Orthotylinae, Phytocoris, Phylinae, Bryocorinae, Mirinae. The Miridae are a diverse family of true bugs including both phytophagous and carnivorous species. They can be distinguished from most other bug families by the presence of a cuneus in the forewing, together with a four-segmented labium (Carver et al. 1991). They also generally lack ocelli though… Continue reading Miridae


Belongs within: Panheteroptera. The Nepoidea are a group of aquatic bugs in which the fore wing venation is reticulate and the eighth abdominal tergum is modified into a pair of respiratory processes. In members of the family Nepidae, water scorpions, these processes are angular filaments that form a more or less elongate siphon. In the… Continue reading Nepoidea


Belongs within: Panheteroptera.Contains: Rhypodes, Blissus, Geocoris, Astacops, Oncopeltus, Lygaeus. The Lygaeidae are a large family of bugs that mostly feed on seeds. The Blissinae, chinch bugs, are exceptional in feeding on sap from monocotyledonous plants. Members of the subfamilies Lygaeinae, Ischnorhynchinae and Orsillinae have the spiracles located dorsally on each segment of the abdomen; in… Continue reading Lygaeidae


Belongs within: Panheteroptera.Contains: Mezirinae. The Aradoidea are a group of flattened bugs, many species of which are found on or under bark of dead or dying trees (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). When wings are present, the sides of the abdomen extend outside the margins of the wings at rest. Most living species are included in… Continue reading Aradoidea


Belongs within: Auchenorrhyncha.Contains: Cercopoidea, Tibicinidae, Cicadidae, Cicadellidae, Membracidae. The Clypeata are the crown clade of living species of the Cicadomorpha. They are characterised by a large, swollen postclypeus, and probably ancestrally feed on xylem (some subgroups feed on phloem or mesophyll) (Shcherbakov & Popov 2002). Three ocelli are present on the crown of the head… Continue reading Clypeata


Belongs within: Paraneoptera.Contains: Heteropteroidea, Auchenorrhyncha, Protopsyllidiidae, Sternorrhyncha. The Hemiptera, bugs, are a major group of insects in which the mouthparts have become modified into a tubular rostrum for sucking fluids. The mandibles and maxillae form two pairs of elongate stylets lying in a grooved labium (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). The maxillary and labial palps have… Continue reading Hemiptera

Categorised as Hemiptera