Belongs within: Heteroptera.Contains: Nepoidea, Corixidae, Naucoroidea, Notonectoidea, Leptopodomorpha, Cimicomorpha, Aradoidea, Pentatomoidea, Coreoidea, Lygaeidae, Rhyparochromidae. The Panheteroptera are a major clade of true bugs characterised by the division of the forewings between a sclerotised proximal corium and non-sclerotised distal membrane. Panheteropterans can be divided between three major clades, the mostly water-associated Nepomorpha and Leptopodomorpha and the more strongly… Continue reading Panheteroptera


Belongs within: Hemiptera.Contains: Heteroptera. The clade Heteropteroidea unites the true bugs of the Heteroptera with their living sister taxon, the Southern Hemisphere Peloridiidae. The peloridiids are flattened, broad-bodied bugs with widely-separated eyes on short peduncles, paranotal lobes on the pronotum, and forewings with net-like veins. They are found amongst moss and leaf litter in South… Continue reading Heteropteroidea


Belongs within: Cimicomorpha.Contains: Orthotylinae, Phytocoris, Phylinae, Bryocorinae, Mirinae. The Miridae are a diverse family of true bugs including both phytophagous and carnivorous species. They can be distinguished from most other bug families by the presence of a cuneus in the forewing, together with a four-segmented labium (Carver et al. 1991). They also generally lack ocelli though… Continue reading Miridae


Belongs within: Panheteroptera. The Nepoidea are a group of aquatic bugs in which the fore wing venation is reticulate and the eighth abdominal tergum is modified into a pair of respiratory processes. In members of the family Nepidae, water scorpions, these processes are angular filaments that form a more or less elongate siphon. In the… Continue reading Nepoidea


Belongs within: Panheteroptera.Contains: Rhypodes, Blissus, Geocoris, Astacops, Oncopeltus, Lygaeus. The Lygaeidae are a large family of bugs that mostly feed on seeds. The Blissinae, chinch bugs, are exceptional in feeding on sap from monocotyledonous plants. Members of the subfamilies Lygaeinae, Ischnorhynchinae and Orsillinae have the spiracles located dorsally on each segment of the abdomen; in… Continue reading Lygaeidae


Belongs within: Panheteroptera.Contains: Mezirinae. The Aradoidea are a group of flattened bugs, many species of which are found on or under bark of dead or dying trees (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). When wings are present, the sides of the abdomen extend outside the margins of the wings at rest. Most living species are included in… Continue reading Aradoidea


Belongs within: Cimicomorpha.Contains: Tribelocephalini, Ploeariodes, Rasahus, Sirthenea. The Reduviidae, assassin bugs, are a diverse group of predatory bugs, generally with a robust beak that is usually permanently curved and held well-separated from the head. They mostly attack other insects except for the Triatominae which feed on the blood of mammals and birds. Most reduviids are… Continue reading Reduviidae


Belongs within: Cimicomorpha.Contains: Cimex (Oblongus), Cimex (Rotundatus). The Cimicidae, bed bugs, are a group of flightless, flattened bugs that feed on blood from mammals and birds. The best known species is the common bed bug Cimex lectularius, a notorious pest in human dwellings. Other species known to parasitise humans are C. rotundatus and Leptocimex boueti… Continue reading Cimicidae


Belongs within: Pentatominae. Pentatoma is a Palaearctic genus of shield bugs with produced lateral angles on the pronotum, and male genitalia with paired lobs on the conjunctiva and the vesica and gonopore between the medial penial plates (Gross 1976). The forest bug P. rufipes is a common species over much of Europe that may be… Continue reading Pentatoma


Belongs within: Heteroptera.Contains: Gerroidea. The Gerromorpha are a group of predacious bugs usually associated with aquatic and semi-aquatic habitats. Members include the Mesoveliidae, a cosmopolitan group of slender, long-legged bugs mostly found along water edges though some flightless forms are associated with damp leaf litter. The Hebridae are small bugs, two millimetres or less in… Continue reading Gerromorpha