Belongs within: Pupilloidea. Fading radiation Published 29 October 2022 In studies of evolutionary processes, certain radiations of species have become particularly renowned: the finches of the Galapagos, the honeycreepers of Hawaii, the cichlids of the African Great Lakes. Occupying a justified position among these causes celebre are the Partula snails of the Pacific Islands. These… Continue reading Partula


Belongs within: Pupilloidea. The Vertigininae are a group of snails with reduced tentacles and a penis lacking an appendix and with a simple retractor. <==Vertigininae [Vertigineae, Vertigini] |–Bothriopupa Pilsbry 1898BP90 | `–B. variolosaBP90 |–Sterkia Pilsbry 1898BP90 | `–S. eyrieseBP90 | |–S. e. eyrieseBP90 | `–S. e. rhoadsiBP90 `–Vertigo Müller 1773BR17 | i. s.: V. californicaBP90… Continue reading Vertigininae


Belongs within: Pupilloidea. Pupoides is a genus of very small snails found in tropical or subtropical regions, characterised by the presence of a single tooth near the top of the aperture (Stanisic et al. 2010). Characters (from Stanisic et al. 2010): Shell very small, elongately conical, sinistral or dextral, smooth; apeture ovate with a single… Continue reading Pupoides


Belongs within: Pupilloidea. The Nesopupinae are a group of cylindric small snails in which the penis bears an appendix and the retractor muscle is forked. The genus Nesopupa, found in the Indo-Pacific region, has a golden-brown shell with a granular to wrinkled sculpture, and varying numbers of parietal and palatal teeth in the aperture (Stanisic… Continue reading Nesopupinae


Belongs within: Heterobranchia.Contains: Vertigininae, Nesopupinae, Strobilops, Bifidaria, Pupoides, Pupilla, Vallonia, Pupisoma, Samoana, Partula, Eninae, Gastrocopta, Gyliotrachela, Cerastus, Elasmatininae, Achatinellinae. The Pupilloidea is a diverse group of small snails, often with ovoid to cylindric shells and/or lamellae partially closing the shell aperture. Members include the Achatinellidae, an Indo-Pacific group with conical to elongate shells with generally… Continue reading Pupilloidea


Belongs within: Pupilloidea. Gyliotrachela is a genus of minute land snails found between southeast Asia and northern Australia. They are characterised by having the final whorl of the shell separating from the spire and flaring to a trumpet-like aperture. Characters (from Stanisic et al. 2010): Shell tiny, conic-trochoidal, prominent peripheral angle and subperipheral sulcus; spiral… Continue reading Gyliotrachela


Belongs within: Pupilloidea. Gastrocopta is a cosmopolitan genus of small snails with the shell aperture partially closed by lamellae. A group of Australian species with particularly dense arrangements of lamellae has been recognised as a distinct genus Pumilicopta but the value of this distinction has subsequently been questioned (Köhler et al. 2012). A little bit… Continue reading Gastrocopta