Belongs within: Turridae. Deep sea divergence Published 19 February 2024 I have often had cause before to remark on the taxonomic morass that is represented by the assemblage of gastropods historically referred to as the ‘Turridae’. Recent decades have seen this family undergo multiple revisions, as more modern methods have confirmed what was long suspected,… Continue reading Cryptogemma


Pseudomelatoma‘s mysterious teeth Published 27 December 2023 In many older texts, you will find members of the gastropod superfamily Conoidea referred to as the ‘Toxoglossa’. This name, meaning ‘poison tongue’, was inspired by the modification of their radula to deliver a powerful hit of venom to knock out prey. In its most derived form, the… Continue reading Pseudomelatoma


Belongs within: Conidae.Contains: Conus (Plicaustraconus), Conus (Stephanoconus), Conus (Strategoconus), Conus (Turriconus), Conus (Dauciconus), Conus (Floraconus), Conus (Splinoconus), Conus (Rhizoconus), Conus (Pionoconus), Conus (Textilia), Conus (Phasmoconus), Conus (Virroconus), Conus (Lividoconus), Conus (Virgiconus), Conus (Lautoconus), Conus (Leptoconus), Conus (Darioconus), Conus (Cylinder). Conus, the cone shells, is a genus of cone-shaped predatory gastropods in which the radula has… Continue reading Conus

Categorised as Conidae

Crassispira (Crassispira)

Crassispira woodringi Published 22 January 2023 Crassispira is one of those conoid genera that has tended to draw species into it, impelled by the force of its taxonomic gravity. As noted by Powell (1966), various authors have tended to award it any conoid species exhibiting a strong subsutural fold. Among modern species, the recognition of… Continue reading Crassispira (Crassispira)


Belongs within: Neogastropoda.Contains: Speightiidae, Cryptoconidae, Drilliidae, Pseudomelatomidae, Clavatulidae, Horaiclavidae, Lucerapex, Terebridae, Turridae, Cochlespiridae, Conidae, Clathurellidae, Conorbidae, Borsoniidae, Mangeliidae, Raphitomidae, Mitromorphidae. The Conoidea are a diverse clade of predatory marine gastropods, many of which have the radula modified for the delivery of venom (hence the alternative name sometimes used for the group of Toxoglossa). With the… Continue reading Conoidea

Categorised as Conoidea


Belongs within: Drilliidae. Cymatosyrinx is a genus of moderate-sized conoids with a high-spired, glossy shell found in the American tropics (Powell 1966). Characters (from Powell 1966): Shell of moderate size, 10–45 mm, typically solid, with a tall spire and a truncated body-whorl, terminating in a short, twisted, very deeply notched anterior canal. Protoconch papillate of… Continue reading Cymatosyrinx

Categorised as Drilliidae


Belongs within: Conoidea.Contains: Tylotiella, Fenimorea, Austroclavus, Elaeocyma, Cymatosyrinx, Syntomodrillia, Fusiturricula, Iredalea, Clavus, Cerodrillia, Splendrillia (Splendrillia), Agladrillia, Clathrodrillia, Drillia (Drillia). The Drilliidae are a group of slender-shelled predatory gastropods, with a fossil record extending to the Upper Cretaceous (Powell 1966). Most retain a radula with well-developed lateral teeth (Bouchet et al. 2011), probably for active processing of… Continue reading Drilliidae

Categorised as Drilliidae


Belongs within: Conoidea.Contains: Antiplanes, Epideira, Megasurcula, Austrotoma, Compsodrillia, Lioglyphostoma, Comitas, Knefastia, Pseudomelatoma, Carinodrillia, Inquisitor, Crassispira (Crassispira). The Pseudomelatomidae are a diverse group of conoid gastropods, usually with well developed spiral and axial sculpture (Bouchet et al. 2011). Members include the genus Leucosyrinx, found in deep ocean basins and characterised by lightly built shells with a… Continue reading Pseudomelatomidae


Belongs within: Drilliidae. Cerodrillia is a genus of small conoids found in warmer, shallow waters on the eastern coast of North America (Powell 1966). Characters (from Powell 1966): Shell small, 11–13 mm, elongate-fusiform, with a tall spire of medially weakly angulated whorls, and an ovate body-whorl, slowly tapered to a very short, broadly channelled but… Continue reading Cerodrillia

Categorised as Drilliidae


Belongs within: Conoidea.Contains: Coronia, Cryptogemma, Pleuroliria, Eopleurotoma (Eopleurotoma), Amuletum, Polystira, Turridrupa, Turris, Lophiotoma, Gemmula (Gemmula). The Turridae are a group of marine gastropods previously recognised as including all non-conid and non-terebrid conoids but now restricted to a monophyletic group with a usually narrowly fusiform shell bearing obsolete axial sculpture and a peripheral anal sinus (Bouchet et al.… Continue reading Turridae