Petrosia

Belongs within: Petrosina. Petrosia: the sexual life of the sponges Published 9 September 2015 It has to be admitted that sponges are not one of the best-publicised of animal groups. Even when they are given some grudging mention, there is little reference to the variety of sponges that can be found on our planet. But… Continue reading Petrosia

Myxillidae

Belongs within: Poecilosclerida. Anchor sponges Published 17 April 2022 Sponges are, by their very nature, a challenging group taxonomically. At the macroscopic level, they are often amorphous and indeterminate in appearance. As one taxonomist complained in 1842 (as quoted in Hooper & Van Soest 2002): “there is so much that is in common to them,… Continue reading Myxillidae

Hexactinellida

Belongs within: Porifera.Contains: Hexasterophora, Amphidiscophora. The Hexactinellida, glass sponges, are a group of sponges with a skeleton composed of silica, around with the (relatively sparse) cellular material is mostly conjoined into a multinucleate syncytium. Characters (from Adl et al. 2012): Siliceous spicules triaxonic, hexactinic; cells forming extensive multinucleate syncytium, with some differentiated cells; electrical conductance… Continue reading Hexactinellida

Published
Categorised as Porifera

Heteroscleromorpha

Belongs within: Demospongiae.Contains: Tetracladina, Anthaspidellidae, Rhizomorina, Dicranocladina, Megamorina, Petrosina, Chalinidae, Niphatidae, Callyspongiidae, Tetractinellida, Axinellida, Bubarida, Biemnida, Agelasida, Polymastiidae, Suberitidae, Halichondriidae, Tethyida, Poecilosclerida, Clionaidae, Sphaerocladina, Spongillidae. The Heteroscleromorpha are a major clade of demosponges that possess a skeleton composed of siliceous spicules, often in conjuction with smaller microscleres. Notable subgroups of heteroscleromorphs include the Spongillida, the… Continue reading Heteroscleromorpha

Published
Categorised as Porifera

Ancorinidae

Belongs within: Tetractinellida. The Ancorinidae are a diverse and poorly-defined group of demosponges with major spicules composed of oxeas (rods terminally tapering to a point) and/or triaenes (rods with ends divided into three). Characters (from Uriz 2002): Skeleton with long-rhabdome triaenes, which may be reduced or absent, and oxeas. Microscleres are euasters, sanidasters or microrhabds.… Continue reading Ancorinidae

Published
Categorised as Porifera

Tetillidae

Belongs within: Tetractinellida. The Tetillidae, golf-ball sponges, are a widespread group of mostly globular demosponges. Characters (from Van Soest & Rützler 2002): Typically with spherical growth form, often with characteristic pits (porocalices) containing inhalant and occasionally also exhalant orifices. Cortical region often strengthened by collagen fibers and special cortical megascleres, but may be thin or… Continue reading Tetillidae

Published
Categorised as Porifera

Dictyoceratida

Belongs within: Ceractinomorpha.Contains: Spongia. The Dictyoceratida are a group of demosponges lacking siliceous spicules, with the skeleton usually being composed entirely of spongin fibres. One species, Vaceletia crypta, has a hypercalcified basal skeleton composed of irregularly structered aragonite (Morrow & Cárdenas 2015). The Dictyoceratida include the commercial bath sponge Spongia officinalis, found in warm waters… Continue reading Dictyoceratida

Published
Categorised as Porifera

Microcionidae

Belongs within: Poecilosclerida. The Microcionidae are a group of demosponges found predominantly in shallow waters, with the skeleton usually differentiated between distinct choanosomal, subectosomal and ectosomal regions (Hooper 2002). Characters (from Hooper 2002): Skeleton with terminally spined ectosomal styles, rarely modified to quasidiactinal or diactinal forms; three skeletal regions defined by presence of different forms… Continue reading Microcionidae

Published
Categorised as Porifera

Poecilosclerida

Belongs within: Heteroscleromorpha.Contains: Microcionidae, Acarnidae, Mycalidae, Guitarridae, Cladorhizidae, Coelosphaeridae, Hymedesmiidae, Tedaniidae, Myxillidae, Chondropsidae. The Poecilosclerida is a group of demosponges with discrete organic and inorganic skeletons, with discrete siliceous spicules (Hooper & Van Soest 2002). Characters (from Hooper & Van Soest 2002): Skeleton composed of discrete siliceous spicules; main skeleton composed of megascleres (monactinal, diactinal… Continue reading Poecilosclerida

Published
Categorised as Porifera

Raspailiidae

Belongs within: Axinellida. The Raspailiidae are a group of often branching sponges, with a distinct outer skeleton composed of spicule brushes grouped around extra-axial spicules. Characters (from Hooper 1991): Typically branching, less often massive, flabelliform or encrusting. Surface typically hispid, even, but forms with microconules or entirely smooth surfaces also known. Ectosomal skeleton with ectosomal… Continue reading Raspailiidae

Published
Categorised as Porifera