Belongs within: Orthotrichaceae. The section Tenella of the genus Orthotrichum includes mosses with recurved margins on the relatively obtuse leaves (Dixon 1924). <==Orthotrichum Hedw. 1801SK02 |–O. subg. OrthotrichumS04 | |–O. anomalum Hedw. 1801S04 (see below for synonymy) | |–O. cupulatum Brid. 1801S04 (see below for synonymy) | `–O. urnigerum Myrin 1833OZB-O03 |–O. subg. Gymnosporus (Lindb.… Continue reading Orthotrichum

Categorised as Bryopsida


Belongs within: Streptophyta.Contains: Cingulati, Zonati, Pollenites, Apo-Tracheophyta, Marchantiophyta, Bryophyta, Anthocerotopsida. The clade Embryophyta contains the land plants, the dominant producers of the terrestrial environment. These organisms were able to thrive out of the water due to the retention and fertilisation of their eggs within protective structures, though less derived forms remain dependent on damp conditions… Continue reading Embryophyta


Belongs within: Tracheophyta.Contains: Archaeopteridales, Lagenostomales, Apo-Spermatophyta. The Lignophyta comprises the clade of wood-producing plants, defined by Cantino et al. (2007) as the most inclusive clade characterised by a bifascial vascular cambium (a meristematic layer producing secondary xylem on the inner face and secondary phloem on the outer face) homologous with that of Pinus sylvestris. Synapomorphies… Continue reading Lignophyta

Categorised as Lignophyta


Belongs within: Charopsida. The Porocharaceae are a family of charophytes known from the mid-Carboniferous to the Triassic (Edwards et al. 1993). Members are characterised by gyrogonites with an apical pore that is always open. PorocharaceaeWH78 | i. s.: Stomochara moreyi (Peck 1934) Grambast 1962EB93 |–PorocharoideaeWH78 | |–PorocharaWH78 | `–‘Porosphaera’ Wang & Huang 1978 nec Dumort.… Continue reading Porocharaceae

Categorised as Charopsida


Belongs within: Zygnematophyceae.Contains: Desmidiaceae. The Desmidiales, placoderm desmids, are filamentous or unicellular green algae with segmented, elaborately ornamented cell walls (McCourt et al. 2000). <==Desmidiales [Desmidioideae] |–+–+–DesmidiaceaeMK00 | | `–Penium [Peniaceae, Penieae]MK00 | | |–P. closterioidesG64 | | |–P. cylindrusG64 | | |–P. digitusG64 | | |–P. interruptumG64 | | |–P. jenneriG64 | | |–P.… Continue reading Desmidiales


Belongs within: Streptophyta.Contains: Desmidiales, Zygnematoideae. The Zygnematophyceae, conjugating green algae, are a group of unicellular or filamentous green algae found in fresh water. Sexual reproduction occurs via conjugation, with no ciliated stages in the life cycle, and cells lack centrioles (Adl et al. 2019). <==Zygnematophyceae (see below for synonymy)MK00 |–+–Netrium digitusMK00 | `–DesmidialesMK00 `–TrichimorphaG64 |–ThwaitesieaeG64… Continue reading Zygnematophyceae


Belongs within: Desmidiaceae. Cosmarium is a genus of unicellular desmids bearing two rounded semicells lacking spines. <==Cosmarium |–C. amoenumG64 |–C. amplumP08 |–C. aphanichondrumP08 |–C. attenuatumG64 |–C. bacciferumP08 |–C. binerveP08 |–C. bioculatumG64 |–C. biretumG64 |–C. boeckiiP08 | |–C. b. var. boeckiiP08 | |–C. b. var. imperfectum Playfair 1908P08 | `–C. b. var. trifoliatum Playfair 1908P08 |–C.… Continue reading Cosmarium


Belongs within: Desmidiales.Contains: Cosmarium, Euastrum, Staurastrum. The Desmidiaceae are a family of desmids in which the cell has elaborately sculptured walls and is divided between two semicells connected by a narrow isthmus. <==Desmidiaceae [Cosmarieae, Desmidieae, Xanthidieae]MK00 |–ArthrodesmusMK00 | |–A. convergensG64 | |–A. gibberulusP08 | | |–A. g. var. gibberulusP08 | | `–A. g. var. ellipticus… Continue reading Desmidiaceae


Belongs within: Desmidiaceae. Euastrum is a genus of desmids characterised by cells with two symmetrical semicells, usually longer than wide, with wavy, lobed edges and an apical notch on each semicell. <==Euastrum |–E. affineG64 |–E. agalmaH04 |–E. ampullaceumG64 |–E. ansatumG64 |–E. apiculatumH04 |–E. binaleG64 |–E. circulareG64 |–E. cosmarioidesP08 |–E. crassumG64 |–E. cuneatumG64 |–E. dideltaG64 |–E.… Continue reading Euastrum


Belongs within: Desmidiaceae. Staurastrum is a genus of desmids with cells divided between two semicells by a deep midline constriction, each bearing radially arranged arm-like processes. <==Staurastrum Meyen 1829M70 |–S. aculeatumH04 |–S. alternansG64 |–S. anatinum Cooke & Wills 1880M70 |–S. angolenseP08 |–S. approximatumP08 | |–S. a. var. approximatumP08 | `–S. a. var. centenniale Playfair 1908P08… Continue reading Staurastrum