Belongs within: Lejeuneaceae. Liver le jeune Published 25 March 2023 Liverwort taxonomy is fraught with challenges. Their small size makes them difficult to study. Their relatively simple morphology makes for high rates of evolutionary convergence. Some significant features can only be observed under specific conditions, such as the structure of oil bodies that can only… Continue reading Lejeunea


Belongs within: Jungermanniales. Frullania is a large genus of liverworts, species of which are often found in relatively dry habitats. Characters (from Hodgson 1949): Plants small to large, creeping, matted or semi-tufted, red-brown to very dark or blackish, olive or pale green, sometimes tinted rose. Stems regularly to irregularly pinnately or bipinnately branched, branches laterally… Continue reading Frullania


Belongs within: Jungermanniales. The Herbertineae is a group of liverworts with isophyllous or subisophyllous gametophytes. Androecia are terminal (becoming intercalary) on the leading leaf axes (Engel & Braggins 2001). Members include the globally distributed genus Herbertus with erect growth form, ventral intercalary branching, and transversely inserted, deeply bifid leaves with a conspicuous vitta. <==Herbertineae |… Continue reading Herbertineae


Belongs within: Embryophyta.Contains: Marchantiopsida, Jungermanniales, Metzgeriales, Fossombroniopsida. The Marchantiophyta (also often referred to as the Hepaticae) include the liverworts, small, often moss-like plants found in damp habitats. Liverworts are distinguished from other land plants by the presence of oil bodies in the gametophytes of many species, and by the presence in the sporangium of elaters,… Continue reading Marchantiophyta


Belongs within: Marchantiophyta.Contains: Cephaloziaceae, Scapaniaceae, Plagiochila, Schistochila, Lejeuneaceae, Porella, Frullania, Lepidoziaceae, Geocalycaceae, Herbertineae, Jungermannia. The Jungermanniales are the leafy liverworts, a clade of liverworts with well-defined leaf-like structures on the stems. Also significant in recognising the group are the terminal (acrogynous) perichaetia, positioned on the end of branches. Major subgroups include the Jungermanniaceae, with unlobed,… Continue reading Jungermanniales


Belongs within: Jungermanniales. Schistochila is a genus of leafy liverworts, claimed by Hodgson (1942) to be the ‘most beautiful’ of liverwort genera. Characters (from Hodgson 1942): Plants small to robust, stems simple or with few branches, sub-woody or fleshy, with or without paraphyllia, with rhizoids on ventral side or at base. Leaves small to very… Continue reading Schistochila


Belongs within: Jungermanniales. Plagiochila is a cosmopolitan genus of leafy liverworts; with over 1200 species, it is the largest of the recognised liverwort genera. Members of the genus are very diverse in superficial appearance, including both trailing epiphytic species and forms with reduced leaves. Characters (from Hong 1992): Dioicous gametangia; gemmae absent; creeping rhizomatous stems;… Continue reading Plagiochila


Belongs within: Jungermanniales. The Lepidoziaceae is a cosmopolitan family of leafy liverworts, most speciose in tropical regions. They are characterised by the possession of lobed but not folded leaves. Characters (from Hong 1988): Dioicous or autoicous (never paroicous) gametangia; strongly incubous or transverse leaf insertion; distinctly two- to four-lobed leaves; unistratose cortical layer of stem;… Continue reading Lepidoziaceae


Belongs within: Jungermanniales. The Geocalycaceae are a cosmopolitan family of leafy liverworts. It has been divided by some authors into separate families Geocalycaceae and Lophocoleaceae, based (among other features) on the presence (Lophocoleaceae) or absence (Geocalycaceae) of a perianth. Some like it cold Published 24 August 2010 I’m not providing you with an image of… Continue reading Geocalycaceae


Belongs within: Marchantiophyta.Contains: Metzgeriineae. The Metzgeriales is a clade of mostly simple thalloid liverworts, though some display varying degrees of ‘leafiness’. They are characterised by the production of archegonia behind the growing point (Smith 1991). Members of the Metzgeriales are found in damp habitats. Characters (from Smith 1991): Plants dorsiventral, thalloid, with or without well-developed… Continue reading Metzgeriales