Belongs within: Embryophyta.Contains: Rhyniaceae, Tracheophyta. The Apo-Tracheophyta are a broad clade of land plants, defined by Cantino et al. (2007) as the most inclusive clade possessing tracheids (differentially thickened water conducting cells) homologous with those of Pinus sylvestris. <==Apo-Tracheophyta [Psilophyta, Pteridophyta, Rhyniophyta, Rhyniophytina, Rhyniopsida, Tracheidatae] |–Lyonophyton Remy & Remy 1980SP12 [incl. Aglaophyton Edwards 1986D98, SP12]… Continue reading Apo-Tracheophyta


Belongs within: Apo-Tracheophyta.Contains: Pan-Monilophyta, Trimerophytina, Lignophyta, Zosterophyllaceae, Lycopodiopsida. Tracheophyta was defined by Cantino et al. (2007) as the crown-group of vascular plants, i.e. the largest crown clade including Zea mays but not Phaeoceros laevis, Marchantia polymorpha or Polytrichum commune, characterised by the walls of the water-conducting cells having a thick, lignified, decay-resistent layer. Modern tracheophytes… Continue reading Tracheophyta


Belongs within: Lejeuneaceae. Liver le jeune Published 25 March 2023 Liverwort taxonomy is fraught with challenges. Their small size makes them difficult to study. Their relatively simple morphology makes for high rates of evolutionary convergence. Some significant features can only be observed under specific conditions, such as the structure of oil bodies that can only… Continue reading Lejeunea


Belongs within: Bryophyta.Contains: Sphagnum subgenus Sphagnum. The Sphagnum mosses are, together with the Tasmanian Ambuchanania leucobryoides, the sister group to all other living mosses. They have thalloid protonemata, leafy shoots lacking rhizoids, and the capsules are not held above the gametophytes by a seta but by an extension of the gametophyte itself called the pseudopod.… Continue reading Sphagnales

Categorised as Sphagnales


Belongs within: Bryopsida.Contains: Racomitrium section Canescentia, Bucklandiella section Laevifoliae. Bucklandiella lusitanica Published 29 September 2020 The diversity of mosses is much higher than many people realise. Whereas some moss species have wide ranges that may cross between continents and hemispheres, others are unique to very specific regions and habitats. Among examples of the latter is… Continue reading Racomitrioideae


Belongs within: Leptosporangiatae. Matoniaceae: ferns with a heritage Published 13 January 2019 Ferns are one of those groups of organisms, like sharks and cockroaches, that are not really as ancient as most people imagine. For all that ferns are indelibly associated in the public conscience with antediluvian imagery of steamy coal swamps and great lumbering… Continue reading Matoniaceae


Belongs within: Diaphoretickes.Contains: Umbellinaceae, Charopsida, Zygnematophyceae, Embryophyta. The Streptophyta are a clade uniting the land plants (Embryophyta) with their closest allies among the green algae. Most species have a non-motile vegetative phase in the life cycle. Plesiomorphic streptophytes possess asymmetrical motile cells with a pair of cilia lacking mastigonemes; basal bodies have a distinctive multilayered… Continue reading Streptophyta


Belongs within: Embryophyta.Contains: Sphagnales, Andreaeaceae, Bryidae, Funariidae, Archidium, Dicranideae, Polytrichaceae. The Bryophyta are the mosses, the largest living group of non-vascular land plants. Mosses are distinguished by the presence of distinct leaves and multicellular rhizoids on the gametophyte (which is the dominant part of the life-cycle, supporting the dependent sporophytes), and of a columnella (a… Continue reading Bryophyta

Categorised as Bryophyta

Sphagnum subgenus Sphagnum

Belongs within: Sphagnales. Sphagnum subgenus Cymbifolium is a group of robust sphagnum mosses with unbordered stem leaves and rough branch leaves (Dixon 1924). <==Sphagnum Linnaeus 1753 subg. SphagnumS04 [incl. S. subg. CymbifoliaD24] |–S. affine Renauld & Cardot 1885 [=S. imbricatum ssp. affine]S04 |–S. austinii Sull. ex Aust. 1870 [=S. imbricatum ssp. austinii]S04 |–S. degeneransD24 |–S.… Continue reading Sphagnum subgenus Sphagnum

Categorised as Sphagnales


Belongs within: Hypnales. The Anomodontaceae are a group of mat-forming mosses with an erect, exserted capsule. Characters (from I. Granzow-de la Cerda): Plants small to large, in dense or loose mats, glaucous, green, brown, or yellowish brown, dull. Stems creeping, sparsely to profusely branched, irregularly pinnate; paraphyllia absent. Stem and branch leaves differentiated. Stem leaves… Continue reading Anomodontaceae

Categorised as Bryopsida