Belongs within: Novialoidea.Contains: Ornithocheirus, Pterodactylus, Ctenochasmatidae, Dsungaripteroidea, Azhdarchoidea, Anhangueria. The Pterodactyloidea are a clade of pterosaurs characterised by elongation of the head and neck, and reduction of the tail. The ornithocheirids: misunderstood giants Published 17 January 2012 The pterosaurs of the Ornithocheiridae that lived between the Early and mid-Cretaceous were not the largest pterosaurs to… Continue reading Pterodactyloidea


Belongs within: Pterodactyloidea. Pterodactylus is a genus of medium-sized pterosaurs known from the later Jurassic, representing one of the earlier representatives of the short-tailed pterodactyloids (Wellnhofer 1991). <==Pterodactylus Cuvier 1809U03 [=Ornithocephalus Soemmering 1812W91] |–P. antiquus (Soemmering 1812)K03 (see below for synonymy) |–P. arningi Reck 1931 (n. d.)W91 |–P. brancai Reck 1931 (n. d.)W91 |–P. cerinensis… Continue reading Pterodactylus


Belongs within: Pterodactyloidea. Ornithocheirus is a genus of pterosaur known from the mid-Cretaceous (Albian) that has historically been used for a number of poorly preserved taxa of uncertain affinities. Characters (from Rodrigues & Kellner 2013, for the type species Ornithocheirus simus): Rostrum tall, not expanded anteriorly; first pair of premaxillary teeth directed ventrally; first pair… Continue reading Ornithocheirus


Belongs within: Pterodactyloidea.Contains: Azhdarchidae. The Azhdarchoidea are a Cretaceous lineage of pterosaurs, characterised by toothless jaws, very large nasoantorbital fenestrae extending above the eye sockets, short wing fingers with truncated distal wing phalanges, and long legs (Witton 2013). <==AzhdarchoideaW13 | i. s.: Palaeornis cliftii Mantell 1844 (n. d.) (see below for synonymy)RK13 |–Tapejaridae [Tapejarinae]W13 |… Continue reading Azhdarchoidea


Belongs within: Pterodactyloidea. The Ctenochasmatidae are a group of pterosaurs known from the Upper Jurassic to the mid-Cretaceous, characterised by elongate jaws bearing high numbers of slender teeth (Witton 2013). <==Ctenochasmatidae [Ptenodraconinae, Pterodaustridae, Pterodaustriidae] | i. s.: Gegepterus changiRK13, W13 | Beipiaopterus Lü 2003A08 | `–B. chenianusW13 |–Ctenochasmatinae [Ctenochasminae]U03 | |–Eosipterus Ji & Ji 1997U03… Continue reading Ctenochasmatidae


Belongs within: Pterodactyloidea. The Anhangueria are a clade of pterosaurs including all species more closely related to Anhanguera blittersdorffi than Istiodactylus latidens or Cimoliopterus cuvieri. Its members are united by an anterior expansion of the premaxillary tip with the jaw end tall, and larger teeth at the tip of the rostrum (Rodrigues & Kellner 2013).… Continue reading Anhangueria


Belongs within: Palaeognathae. The genus Struthio includes the ostrich S. camelus of Africa and its fossil relatives. The ostrich is readily distinguished from other living birds by its gigantic size and the presence of only two toes on the foot. Fossil species of Struthio are also known from Eurasia. Most authors have recognised only a… Continue reading Struthio


Belongs within: Neognathae.Contains: Rallidae, Sarothrura, Eogruidae, Gruidae. The Gruiformes, cranes, rails and their relatives, are a group of generally large-footed birds commonly associated with damp habitats. A number of families previously associated with this group, such as the Otididae (bustards), Cariamidae (cariamas), and Eurypygiformes (sunbittern and kagu), are now recognised as independent lineages within the… Continue reading Gruiformes


Belongs within: Gallinula. Fulica, the coots, is a cosmopolitan genus of strongly swimming rails with a well-developed frontal shield and broad lateral lobes on the toes. Plumage is glossy black with the frontal shield often contrastingly coloured. <==Fulica Linnaeus 1758G-RGT14 (see below for synonymy) | i. s.: F. chathamensis Forbes 1892 [=*Nesophalaris chathamensis]CC10 | F.… Continue reading Fulica


Belongs within: Rallidae. The genus Rallus contains the Eurasian and Neotropical long-billed rails (Livezey 1998). Many authors have also included various species of the Pacific rails in Rallus but others have placed them in separate genera such as Gallirallus. The type species of the genus is the water rail R. aquaticus of the western Palaearctic,… Continue reading Rallus