Belongs within: Anguimorpha. The Anguidae, glass lizards and allies, are a group of lizards found in Eurasia, northern Africa and the Americas that are characterised by rectangular scales, osteoderms in the ventral skin, a reduced supratemporal arch and striations on the medial face of the tooth crowns (Animal Diversity Web). Many have limbs reduced or… Continue reading Anguidae


Belongs within: Colubridae.Contains: Coluber. The Colubrinae are a group of snakes characterised by possession of a single sulcus spermaticus on the hemipenis and the reduction of the posterior hypapophyses to keels (Vidal et al. 2000). <==Colubrinae | i. s.: Macroprotodon cucullatusVH02 | Hapsidophrys smaragdinaVH02 | Dispholidus typusVH02 | Phyllorhynchus decurtatusVH02 | Chilomeniscus cinctusVH02 |–+–+–Gastropyxis smaragdinaVK00… Continue reading Colubrinae


Belongs within: Caenophidia.Contains: Bothrops, Crotalus. The Viperidae, vipers, are a family of venomous snakes with a characteristic fang arrangement: the maxilla is reduced, with the fangs the only teeth present. The maxilla rotates to either hold the fangs erect (when striking) or flat against the roof of the mouth (when at rest). The venom contains… Continue reading Viperidae


Belongs within: Colubrinae. Coluber, the racers, is a genus of large non-venomous snakes that has been variously treated as included a range of Holarctic species or restricted to the North American Coluber constrictor. The race of racers Published 9 October 2021 Snakes are, for the most part, fairly retiring animals, little seen even in areas… Continue reading Coluber


Belongs within: Macrostomata. The Boinae are a primarily Neotropical group of moderate-sized to large snakes. Vertebrae of boines possess paracotylar fossae and foramina; straight, posteromedially angled interzygapophyseal ridges; and a vaulted, bi-angled posterior margin on the neural arch (Head et al. 2009). <==Boinae |–+–Acrantophis madagascariensisVH02 | `–Candoia carinataVH02, HB09 `–Boa Linnaeus 1758VH02, L58 |–B. canina… Continue reading Boinae


Belongs within: Lepidosauria.Contains: Anguidae, Amphisbaenia, Serpentes, Varanidae. The Anguimorpha are a clade of lizards including the glass lizards, monitors, snakes and related taxa. As shown below, phylogenetic analysis of the squamates by Longrich et al. (2012b) also included the Amphisbaenia within this clade but this is almost certainly an artefact of the analysis drawing legless… Continue reading Anguimorpha


Belongs within: Macrostomata.Contains: Viperidae, Colubridae, Elapidae, Lamprophiinae. The Colubroidea are a large clade including nearly 2500 living snake species, including all venomous snakes. Members of the Colubroidea possess supralabial secretory serous cells in the mouth (Vidal & Hedges 2002) and lightly-built, elongate vertebrae with narrow centra (Rage et al. 2003). Living colubroids have traditionally been… Continue reading Caenophidia


Belongs within: Serpentes.Contains: Caenophidia, Boinae. The Macrostomata is the clade including living non-fossorial snakes. Members of the Macrostomata have a hinged supratemporal, increasing the flexibility of the skull (Longrich et al. 2012). Synapomorphies (from Longrich et al. 2012): Orbital margin of prefrontal vertical; maxilla ascending process absent; quadrate ramus of pterygoid with groove; coronoid posteroventral… Continue reading Macrostomata


Belongs within: Elapidae. The Hydrophiinae is a group of sea snakes found in tropical waters of the Indo-Pacific. Members of this group are viviparous, and have a paddle-like tail with elongate neural spines (Naish 2010). Southern snakes at sea Published 22 February 2011 The front-fanged snakes are a distinctive clade distinguished, as it says on… Continue reading Hydrophiinae


Belongs within: Anguimorpha.Contains: Palaeophiidae, Typhlopidae, Madtsoiidae, Tropidophiidae, Anilioidea, Macrostomata. The Serpentes are the crown group of the snakes, a distinctive group of legless squamates (though remnant spurs are present in some species). Within the Serpentes, there is general agreement that the blind snakes or worm snakes of the Scolecophidia represent the sister group to the… Continue reading Serpentes