Belongs within: Therapsida.Contains: Dicynodontia, Theriodontia. The Eutherapsida are the clade of synapsids uniting modern mammals with the Permian Dinocephalia. Members of the clade are characterised by a bowing of the zygomatic arch and increase in size of the temporal fenestra, together with loss of the olecranon ulnae and reduction of the fifth pedal digit to… Continue reading Eutherapsida


Belongs within: Synapsida.Contains: Therapsida. The Sphenacodontidae are a group of carnivorous ‘pelycosaurs’ known from the later Carboniferous to the Middle Permian, suggested by Kemp (1988) to be paraphyletic to the therapsids. <==SphenacodontidaeK88 | i. s.: SecodontosaurusBH04 | Sphenacodon Marsh 1878D07 | |–S. ferociorD07 | `–S. ferox Marsh 1878C07 |–Haptodus garnettensis Currie 1977K88, B93 `–+–TherapsidaK88 `–Dimetrodon… Continue reading Sphenacodontidae


Belongs within: Dicynodontia. The Kannemeyeriiformes are a cosmopolitan clade of dicynodonts known from the Triassic, some members of which reached the size of a modern cow. Members of the clade are united by a markedly enlarged preacetabular expansion of the iliac blade, a distinctly offset caput femoris on the femur, and an olecranon ulnae formed… Continue reading Kannemeyeriiformes


Belongs within: Sphenacodontidae.Contains: Eutherapsida. The Therapsida are a clade including all synapsids except for the basal ‘pelycosaurs’, first known from the Middle Permian. Basal members of the clade include the Biarmosuchia, a group of small to medium-sized carnivores known from the Middle and Upper Permian of South Africa and Russia, characterised by the possession of… Continue reading Therapsida


Belongs within: Batrachosauria.Contains: Sphenacodontidae. The Synapsida are the total group for mammals—that is, mammals and all fossil animals more closely related to mammals than to reptiles. The most basal synapsids, the Permian ‘pelycosaurs’, were still fairly ‘reptilian’ in their general appearance, and include such well-known exemplars as the carnivorous Dimetrodon and the herbivorous Edaphosaurus. The… Continue reading Synapsida

Categorised as Synapsida


Belongs within: Eutherapsida.Contains: Kannemeyeriiformes. The Dicynodontia are a group of herbivorous synapsids known from the the Late Permian to the Cretaceous, though they did not survive past the Late Triassic outside Australia. At their peak, they were the world’s dominant herbivores. One genus, Lystrosaurus, included the most abundant terrestrial vertebrates in the earliest Triassic immediately… Continue reading Dicynodontia