Hard log mayten Maytenus magellanicus, copyright Scott Zona.

Belongs within: Celastrales.
Contains: GymnosporiaMaytenus, Elaeodendroideae, Euonymus.

The Celastraceae are a primarily pantropical family of trees, shrubs and lianas. Synapomorphies of the family as recognised here (including the Elaeodendroideae and Brexia) are cymose inflorescences, dorsifixed anthers and connate styles. Members of the genera Euonymus and Celastrus have been widely grown as ornamentals. Brexia madagascarensis is a small tree with entire or spinose-dentate leaves found in Madagascar and coastal east Africa whose phylogenetic position has been contentious in the past, with various authors placing it close to Saxifragales or Hydrangeales. Members of the Elaeodendroideae are characterised by bisexual, pentamerous families, usually with an extrastaminal disc and three stamens, and transversely flattened, deeply lobed capsules.

<==Celastraceae [Brexiaceae, Brexiales, Hippocrateaceae]
    |  `--+--PlagiopteronXR12
    |     `--+--ElaeodendroideaeXR12
    |        `--Brexia [Brexiaceae, Brexiales]XR12
    |             `--B. madagascarensisWM09
    `--+--+--Paxistima myrsinitesXR12, H93
       |  `--EuonymusXR12
       `--+--Triptrygium [Tripterygioideae]XR12
          `--Celastrus L. 1753XR12, J84a [Celastroideae]
               |--*C. scandens L. 1753J84a
               |--C. australis Harvey & Muell. ex Muell. 1855J84a
               |--C. championiiDD73
               |--C. minutusHL08
               |--C. monospermusDD73
               |--C. orbiculatusTE00
               |--C. paniculatusSR07
               |--C. praeeuropaeus Ettingshausen 1886F71
               `--C. subspicata Hook. 1842J84a
Celastraceae incertae sedis:
  Putterlickia verrucosaGS03
  Salacia L. 1771 [incl. Salacicratea Loes. 1910]J84b
    |--*S. chinensis L. 1771 [incl. Tonsella prinoides Willd. 1803, S. prinoides (Willd.) DC. 1824]J84b
    |--S. disepala (White) Ding Hou 1963 [=Salacicratea disepala White 1944]J84b
    |--S. erythrocarpa Schumann in Schumann & Hollrung 1889J84b
    |--S. forstenianaH03
    |--S. oblongifoliaA78
    `--*Salacicratea’ papuana Loes. 1910J84b
  Cassine L. 1753 [incl. Portenschlagia Tratt. 1818, Elaeodendron sect. Portenschlagia (Tratt.) Muell. 1862]J84a
    |--*C. peragua L. 1753J84a
    |--C. aethiopicaK02
    |--C. australis (Vent.) Kuntze 1891 (see below for synonymy)J84a
    |    |--C. a. var. australisJ84a
    |    `--C. a. var. angustifolia (Benth.) Jessup 1984 (see below for synonymy)J84a
    `--C. melanocarpa (Muell.) Kuntze 1891 (see below for synonymy)J84a
  Perrottetia Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth 1824 [incl. Caryospermum Blume 1850]J84a
    |--*P. quinduensisJ84a
    |--P. arborescens (Muell.) Loes. 1892 [=Caryospermum arborescens Muell. 1868]J84a
    `--*Caryospermum’ moluccanum Blume 1850J84a
  Rhacoma distichaYY22, D03
  Psammomoya Diels & Loes. in Diels & Pritzel 1904J84a
    |--*P. choretroides (Muell.) Diels & Loes. 1904 [=Logania choretroides Muell. 1889]J84a
    `--P. ephedroides Diels & Loes. 1904J84a
  Pterocelastrus echinatusK02
  Torralbasia cuneifoliaJ87
  Mortonia utahensisH93
  Sugoia opposita Samylina 1976CBH93
  Triporotetradites campylostemonoides Salard-Cheboldaeff 1974CBH93
  Tetracolporites ixerboides Couper 1960CBH93
  Apatophyllum McGillivray 1971J84a
    |--*A. constablei McGillivray 1971J84a
    `--A. olsenii McGillivray 1971J84a
  Hedraianthera Muell. 1865J84a
    `--*H. porphyropetala Muell. 1865J84a
  Hexaspora White 1933J84a
    `--*H. pubescens White 1933J84a
  Hypsophila Muell. 1887J84a
    |--*H. halleyana Muell. 1887 [incl. Drimys oblonga Moore 1917]J84a
    `--H. dielsiana Loes. 1903J84a
  Lophopetalum Wight ex Arn. 1839J84a
    |--*L. wightianumJ84a
    `--L. arnhemicum Byrnes 1971J84a
  Pleurostylia Wight & Arn. 1834J84a
    |--*P. wightii Wight & Arn. 1834J84a
    `--P. opposita (Wallich) Alston in Trimen 1931 (see below for synonymy)J84a

Cassine australis (Vent.) Kuntze 1891 [=Elaeodendron australe Vent. 1805, *Portenschlagia australis (Vent.) Tratt. 1818]J84a

Cassine australis var. angustifolia (Benth.) Jessup 1984 [=Elaeodendron australe var. angustifolium Benth. 1863; incl. Portenschlagia integrifolia Tratt. 1814, Cassine integrifolia (Tratt.) Domin 1927, Elaeodendron australe var. integrifolium (Tratt.) DC. 1825, E. integrifolium (Tratt.) Sweet 1830, Cassine australis var. pedunculosa Domin 1927]J84a

Cassine melanocarpa (Muell.) Kuntze 1891 [=Elaeodendron melanocarpum Muell. 1862; incl. Barringtonia sphaerocarpa Gardner 1923]J84a

Pleurostylia opposita (Wallich) Alston in Trimen 1931 [=Celastrus opposita Wallich in Roxb. 1824; incl. Elaeodendron microcarpum White & Francis 1926, Pleurostylia wightii var. neocaledonica Loes. 1907]J84a

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[DD73] Deb, D. B., & R. M. Dutta. 1973. Contribution to the flora of Tirap Frontier Division. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (3): 547–573.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

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[GS03] Groth, I., B. Schütze, T. Boettcher, C. B. Pullen, C. Rodriguez, E. Leistner & M. Goodfellow. 2003. Kitasatospora putterlickiae sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere soil, transfer of Streptomyces kifunensis to the genus Kitasatospora as Kitasatospora kifunensis comb. nov., and emended description of Streptomyces aureofaciens Duggar 1948. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 2033–2040.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[HL08] Henniger, M., & R. Leder. 2008. Eozäne Makroflora der Querfurter Mulde. Mauritiana 20 (2): 229–251.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J84a] Jessup, L. W. 1984a. Celastraceae. In: George, A. S. (eds) Flora of Australia vol. 22. Rhizophorales to Celastrales pp. 150–180. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[J84b] Jessup, L. W. 1984b. Hippocrateaceae. In: George, A. S. (eds) Flora of Australia vol. 22. Rhizophorales to Celastrales pp. 180–184. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[JW03] Jordaan, M., & A. E. van Wyk. 2003. Reinstatement of Gymnosporia (Celastraceae): implications for the Flora Malesiana region. Telopea 10 (1): 155–167.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[K02] Krüger, M. 2002. Revision of the Afrotropical Ennominae of the Drepanogynis group IV: the genus Drepanogynis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Transvaal Museum Monograph 13: 1–220.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 165–172.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[TE00] Tibbetts, T. J., & F. W. Ewers. 2000. Root pressure and specific conductivity in temperate lianas: exotic Celastrus orbiculatus (Celastraceae) vs. native Vitis riparia (Vitaceae). American Journal of Botany 87: 1272–1278.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853–3858.

[XR12] Xi, Z., B. R. Ruhfel, H. Schaefer, A. M. Amorim, M. Sugumaran, K. J. Wurdack, P. K. Endress, M. L. Matthews, P. F. Stevens, S. Mathews & C. C. Davis. 2012. Phylogenomics and a posteriori data partitioning resolve the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation Malpighiales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (43): 17519–17524.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

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