Distenia undata, copyright Robert Webster.

Belongs within: Phytophaga.
Contains: Stenoderinae, Dorcadioninae, Hypselominae, Cirrhicera, Spondylidinae, Lepturinae, Cerambycinae, Parandrinae, Prioninae, Lamiinae.

The Cerambycidae include the longicorn beetles, distinguished (as their name suggests) by the notably long antennae of many species which may be longer than the remainder of the insect. Larvae of longicorns are generally internal feeders on plants. Some species are significant pests as borers into wood. Eggs are typically laid under bark or into cracks. Adult longicorns may feed on flowers, foliage or wood (Lawrence or Britton 1991).

Most cerambycids, with the exceptions of the subfamilies Parandrinae and Prioninae, lack a distinct lateral margin on the pronotum. Tarsi are five-segmented but, except in Parandrinae and Spondylidinae, appear four-segmented due to the fourth segment being reduced and concealed beneath pads on the third. Parandrinae and Spondylidinae also have relatively short antennae, rarely surpassing the base of the pronotum (Turnbow & Thomas 2002). Prioninae, Cerambycinae and Lepturinae differ from Lamiinae in having the head obliquely inclined anteriorly or subvertical, with the genal margin not directed posteriorly. Cerambycinae and Lepturinae usually possess a finely striated stridulatory area on the mesonotum (Turnbow & Thomas 2002). The Necydalinae have short elytra that barely extend over the base of the abdomen, with the wings not carried folded (Turnbow & Thomas 2002).

The Disteniidae are slender longicorns that are distinctive enough to have sometimes been treated as a separate family. Adults differ from other cerambycids in their chisel-shaped mandibles and clypeus which sits obliquely to the frons. The wing lacks a spur on the radio-medial crossvein (Turnbow & Thomas 2002). Antennae usually bear long, recumbent setae lying in grooves on the posterior face. Larvae, where known, have retracted ventral mouthparts with the gula and hypostoma absent and the skin of the prothorax attached directly to the submentum. Disteniids are most diverse in the Southern Hemisphere with rather few species in the North Hemisphere. One of the more widespread genera is Distenia, distinguished by having antennae with segments uniformly tapering towards the apex.

Characters (from Lawrence & Britton 1991): Elongate, subcylindrical to somewhat flattened beetles, usually pubescent; antennae almost always more than two-thirds body length and inserted on prominences, so that they can be directed backwards over the body. Eyes usually emarginate, often deeply so; lateral pronotal carinae usually absent, often with lateral tubercles or spines on prothorax; mesonotum usually with stridulatory file; tibial spurs present on all legs; tarsal claws simple. Larvae elongate, subcylindrical to slightly flattened, lightly sclerotised and subglabrous or clothed with fine setae or patches of spinules. Head retracted into prothorax and excavated posteriorly, forming recess housing retractor muscle; antennae short; mandibles large and stout; prothorax usually more or less enlarged; legs small and widely separated, may be vestigial or absent; first six or seven abdominal segments may bear fleshy ampullae; urogomphi, if present, minute.

<==Cerambycidae [Cerambicini, Cerambycoidea, Lamiidae, Lepturidae, Longicornia, Prionidae]
|--+--Necydalinae [Necydalini]LL20
| | |--Ulochaetes LeConte 1854TT02
| | | `--U. leoninus LeConte 1854B14
| | `--Necydalis Linnaeus 1758L58
| | |--N. abbreviataG20
| | |--N. auricoma Newm. 1840M87
| | |--N. rufa [=Stenopterus rufus]LC40
| | |--N. tristis [=Oedemera tristis]B35
| | `--N. ulmi [incl. N. panzeri]C90
| `--+--SpondylidinaeLL20
| `--LepturinaeLL20
| `--+--ParandrinaeLL20
| `--PrioninaeLL20
`--Disteniidae [Disteniinae]MW15
|--Cometes hirticornis Lepeletier & Audinet-Serville 1828B14
| |--N. chalybeata Pascoe 1866P66b
| `--N. flavicornisP66b
`--Distenia Lepeletier & Audinet-Serville in Latreille 1828TT02
|--D. columbinaLC40
|--D. spinipennisMW15
`--D. undata (Fabricius 1775)TT02

Cerambycidae incertae sedis:
Ochrocydus huttoniFS01
Hybolasius vegetus Broun 1881E02
Xylotoloides trigonellarisE02
Calliprason pallidum (Pascoe 1875)E02
Somatidia helmsiWH02, H15
Oemona hirta (Fabricius 1775)H82
|--P. nanaWFS04
`--P. parvulaWFS04
|--X. griseusWFS04
`--X. humeratusWFS04
Zorion minutumT27
Neocalliprason Brookes 1927B27
`--*N. elegans Brookes 1927B27
|--T. arabicus Thoms. 1877G89
`--T. capensisG89
|--O. elegansG89
`--O. manzonii Gestro 1889G89
|--D. strigifrons Fairm. 1885G89
|--D. subocellatusG89
`--D. vagepictusG89
Glaucytes [Glaucytini]SW03
`--G. interruptaSW03
Poecilipe medialisB88
Allosterna tabacicolorC01
|--N. flaschneri Pic 1890P90a
|--N. involvensC01
|--N. orygiC01
|--N. potaniniC01
`--N. zichyi Csiki 1901C01
Haplocnemia myopsC01
Paraglenea Bates 1866B66
|--*P. fortunei [=Glenea fortunei]B66
`--P. swinhoei Bates 1866B66
Adesmus druryiK91, I92
Atossa [Onocephalinae]P66a
|--*A. strenuaP66a
`--A. atomaria Pascoe 1866P66a
Astathes Newman 1842 [incl. Tetraophthalmus Blanchard 1845; Astatheinae]P66a
|--A. cyanoptera Gahan 2000G00
|--A. episcopalisG00
|--A. nigricornisP66a
|--A. perplexaP66a
|--A. splendida [=Cerambyx splendidus]P66a
|--A. terminataP66a
`--A. violaceipennisG00
Noserius [Cerasphorinae]P66b
`--N. tibialisP66b
Aegosoma [Aegosominae]P66b
|--A. hainanensis Gahan 1900G00
|--A. marginale [=Cerambyx marginalis]P66b
|--A. ornaticolleG00
|--A. scabricorneP66b [=Prionus scabricornisLC40]
`--A. sinicumG00
|--A. australe Dejean in Boisduval 1835B35
|--A. basaleB35
|--A. bipunctatumL02 [=Galeruca (Adorium) bipunctataG20]
|--A. bowringi Baly 1863Fai89a
|--A. chrysomeloides Bates 1866B66
|--A. laticlavum Fairmaire 1889Fai89a
|--A. melanocephalum d’Urville in Boisduval 1835B35
`--A. posticum Dej. in Boisduval 1835B35
Promechus Dejean in Boisduval 1835B35
|--P. aeneus Dejean in Boisduval 1835B35
`--P. splendidus Dejean in Boisduval 1835B35
Osphranteria coerulescens Redtenbacher 1850HAB05
Pathocerus Waterhouse 1901W01
`--*P. wagneri Waterhouse 1901W01
Mecynippus pubicornisLW91
|--E. decempunctatusG00
`--E. laetaG00
|--M. chinensisG00
|--M. horsfieldii [=Cyriocrates horsfieldii]Fai89a
|--M. imitatorG00
|--M. laevigatorFai89a
|--M. macrospilus Gahan 1900G00
|--M. pirouletii Fairmaire 1889Fai89a
`--M. similis Gahan 1900G00
|--Z. lineatus [=Mycerinopsis lineatus]G00
`--Z. unicolorG00
|--P. atysW00
|--P. buckleyiW00
|--P. cacicusW00
|--P. guentheriW00
|--P. iphisW00
|--P. simonsi Waterhouse 1900W00
|--P. uniformis Waterhouse 1900W00
`--P. whitei Waterhouse 1900W00
Araxia sulcataC72b
Lophopoeum timbouvae [incl. Baryssinus leguminicola]C72b
Hemadius Fairmaire 1889Fai89a
`--*H. oenochrous Fairmaire 1889Fai89a
Hephialtes Thoms. 1864FS90
`--H. sulcatus Ol. 1795 [incl. H. castaneum, H. laevigatus, H. tricostatus]FS90
Neocorus Thoms. 1864FS90
`--N. romanowskii Fleutiaux & Sallé 1890FS90
Philematium Thoms. 1864FS90
`--P. festivum Fab. 1775 [incl. P. festum, P. nobile]FS90
Nanilla Fleutiaux & Sallé 1890FS90
`--*N. delauneyi Fleutiaux & Sallé 1890FS90
Ischiocentra [incl. Trestonia Buq. 1859 non Rafinesque 1815]FS90
|--‘Trestonia’ fulgurata Buq. 1859FS90
`--‘Trestonia’ signifera Buq. 1859FS90
Hypomia Thoms. 1868FS90
|--H. grisea Fleutiaux & Sallé 1890FS90
`--H. simplexFS90
Amphionycha Lesél. 1844FS90
|--A. fraudatrixFS90
`--A. nigriventris Chv. in Fleutiaux & Sallé 1890FS90
Drycothaea Thoms. 1868FS90
`--D. guadeloupensis Fleutiaux & Sallé 1890FS90
Mantitheus Fairmaire 1889Fai89b
`--*M. pekinensis Fairmaire 1889Fai89b
Vadonia bitliensis Chevrolat 1882P90b (see below for synonymy)
Ertlia Aurivillius 1907BP02
Tilliclytus geminatusO02
Certalum ruficolleR26
|--R. marginipennisB89
|--R. modestus Blackburn 1889B89
`--R. nasutusB89
Phelipara subvittata Blair 1933JG19
Sciades exigua (Gahan 1900) [=Aegocidnus exiguus]JG19
Anomophysis coxalis (Gahan 1900) [=Prinobius coxalis]JG19

Vadonia bitliensis Chevrolat 1882P90b [=Leptura bitlisensisFau89; incl. V. bitliensis var. bistigmata Pic 1890P90b, L. cribricollis Pic 1890P90b, V. bitliensis var. instigmata Pic 1890P90b]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B66] Bates, H. W. 1866. On a collection of Coleoptera from Formosa sent home by R. Swinhoe, Esq., H. B. M. Consul, Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 339–355.

[B89] Blackburn, T. 1889. Notes on Australian Coleoptera, with descriptions of new species. Part III. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (2): 445–482.

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d’Urville. Faune entomologique de l’océan Pacifique, avec l’illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[BP02] Bologna, M. A., & J. D. Pinto. 2002. The Old World genera of Meloidae (Coleoptera): a key and synopsis. Journal of Natural History 36 (17): 2013–2102.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B27] Brookes, A. E. 1927. A new genus and three new species of Coleoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 563–566.

[C72a] Chemsak, J. A. 1972a. Review of the genus Cirrhicera Thomson (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (2): 86–93.

[C72b] Chemsak, J. A. 1972b. A new seed inhabiting cerambycid from Costa Rica (Coleoptera). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (2): 150–152.

[C90] Chobaut, M. 1890. Necydalis. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: ccx.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[E02] Emberson, R. M. 2002. The beetle (Coleoptera) fauna of the Chatham Islands: Additions and corrections. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 69–77.

[Fai89a] Fairmaire, L. 1889a. Coléoptères de l’intérieur de la Chine. 5e partie. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 5–84.

[Fai89b] Fairmaire, L. 1889b. Un nouveau genre de longicorne. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: lxxxix–xc.

[Fau89] Fauvel, A. 1889. Leptura cribricollis. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: lxxxix.

[FS01] Field, L. H., & G. R. Sandlant. 2001. The gallery-related ecology of New Zealand tree wetas, Hemideina femorata and Hemideina crassidens (Orthoptera, Anostostomatidae). In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 243–257. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[FS90] Fleutiaux, E., & A. Sallé. 1890. Liste des coléoptères de la Guadeloupe et descriptions d’espèces nouvelles. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 351–484.

[G00] Gahan, C. J. 1900. On some longicorn Coleoptera from the island of Hainan. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 347–354.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso “Esploratore” dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H15] Hedley, C. 1915. Presidential address. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (1): 1–77, pls 1–7.

[H82] Helmore, D. W. 1982. Drawings of New Zealand insects. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of New Zealand 8: 1–52.

[HAB05] Hesami, S., M. A. Akrami & H. Baur. 2005. Leucospis dorsigera Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Leucospidae) as a hyperparasitoid of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) through Xoridinae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in Iran. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 14 (1): 66–68.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[JG19] James, D. J., P. T. Green, W. F. Humphreys & J. C. Z. Woinarski. 2019. Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34 (2): 55–114.

[K91] Kathirithamby, J. 1991. Strepsiptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 684–695. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[LC40] Laporte de Castelnau, F. 1840. Histoire Naturelle des Insectes Coléoptères vol. 2. P. Duménil: Paris.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LL20] Lee, S., & S. Lee. 2020. Multigene phylogeny uncovers oviposition-related evolutionary history of Cerambycinae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 145: 106707.

[LW91] Lindquist, E. E., & K. W. Wu. 1991. Review of mites of the genus Mucroseius (Acari: Mesostigmata: Ascidae) associated with sawyer beetles (Cerambycidae: Monochamus and Mecynippus) and pine wood nematodes [Aphelenchoididae: Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer) Nickle], with descriptions of six new species from Japan and North America, and notes on their previous misidentification. Canadian Entomologist 123: 875–927.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis revised 10th ed. vol. 1. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M87] Masters, G. 1887. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part VI. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 979–1036.

[MW15] McKenna, D. D., A. L. Wild, K. Kanda, C. L. Bellamy, R. G. Beutel, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, M. A. Ivie, M. L. Jameson, R. A. B. Leschen, A. E. Marvaldi, J. V. McHugh, A. F. Newton, J. A. Robertson, M. K. Thayer, M. F. Whiting, J. F. Lawrence, A. Ślipiński, D. R. Maddison & B. D. Farrell. 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology 40 (4): 835–880.

[O02] Opitz, W. 2002. Cleridae Latreille 1804. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 267–280. CRC Press.

[P66a] Pascoe, F. P. 1866a. Catalogue of longicorn Coleoptera collected in the island of Penang by James Lamb, Esq. Part I. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 222–267.

[P66b] Pascoe, F. P. 1866b. Catalogue of longicorn Coleoptera collected in the island of Penang by James Lamb, Esq. Part II. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 504–536.

[P90a] Pic, M. 1890a. Une nouvelle espèce de longicorne du genre Neodorcadion Gangl. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: clxxv.

[P90b] Pic, M. 1890b. Une espèce de longicorne peu connue (Vadonia bitliensis Chevr.) Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: clxxv–clxxvi.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[SW03] Song, D., & Q. Wang. 2003. Systematics of the longicorn beetle genus Coptomma Newman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae). Invertebrate Systematics 17: 429–447.

[T27] Thomson, G. M. 1927. The pollination of New Zealand flowers by birds and insects. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 106–125.

[TT02] Turnbow, R. H., Jr & M. C. Thomas. 2002. Cerambycidae Leach 1815. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 568–601. CRC Press.

[W00] Waterhouse, C. O. 1900. New species of the coleopterous genus Prionocalus from Ecuador and Peru. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 503–506.

[W01] Waterhouse, C. 1901. Two new genera of Coleoptera belonging to the Cupesidae and Prionidae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 520–523.

[WFS04] Winks, C. J., S. V. Fowler & L. A. Smith. 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61–72.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

One comment

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *