Red-shanked douc Pygathrix nemaeus, photographed by Jurgen & Christine Sohns.

Belongs within: Catarrhini.
Contains: ProcolobusPresbytis, Trachypithecus, Cercopithecini, Macaca, Papio.

The Cercopithecidae include the Old World monkeys, found in Africa and Asia. They can be divided between the often generalised Cercopithecinae, including baboons, macaques and guenons, and the often more strictly herbivorous Colobinae, including the colobus monkeys and langurs.

Characters (from Clutton-Brock 1984): Dental formula I2/2, C1/1, P2/2, M3/3; molars bilophodont, with the four cusps joined in pairs by transverse ridges. Ischial callosities (hard pads on lower side of buttocks) present.

    |  i. s.: Comopithecus hamadryasMH96
    |         Inuus sanctijohannis Swinhoe 1866S66
    |--Colobinae [Colobidae, Colobina, Presbytina]CM79
    |    |  i. s.: MesopithecusB-J84
    |    |         Dolichopithecus ruscinensisB-J84, SD78
    |    |         MicrocolobusG91
    |    |         Libypithecus Stromer 1913SD78
    |    |           `--L. markgrafi Stromer 1913SD78
    |    |         Cercopithecoides Mollett 1947SD78
    |    |           `--C. williamsi Mollet 1946WC56 [incl. Parapapio coronatusSD78, C. mollettiSD78]
    |    |         Paracolobus Leakey 1969SD78
    |    |           `--*P. chemeroni Leakey 1969SD78
    |    |--+--ProcolobusFS15
    |    |  `--Colobus Illiger 1811FS15, SD78
    |    |       |  i. s.: C. caudatusK08
    |    |       |         C. flandrini (Arambourg 1959) [=Macaca flandrini]SD78
    |    |       |         C. leucomerosF41
    |    |       |--C. satanasFS15
    |    |       `--+--C. angolensisFS15
    |    |           `--+--C. guerezaFS15
    |    |              `--+--C. polykomosFS15
    |    |                 |    |--C. p. polykomosS67
    |    |                 |    `--C. p. abyssinicus (Oken 1816)S67
    |    |                 `--C. vellerosusFS15
    |    `--+--PresbytisFS15
    |       `--+--TrachypithecusFS15
    |          `--+--RhinopithecusFS15
    |             |    |--R. brelichiFS15 [=Pygathrix (Rhinopithecus) brelichiG91]
    |             |    `--+--R. roxellanaFS15 [=Pygathrix (Rhinopithecus) roxellanaG91, P. roxellanae (l. c.)G91]
    |             |       `--+--R. avunculusFS15 [=Pygathrix (Rhinopithecus) avunculusG91]
    |             |          `--R. bietiFS15 [=Pygathrix (Rhinopithecus) roxellana bietiG91]
    |             `--+--Nasalis [Nasalinae]FS15
    |                |    |--N. concolorB-J84 [=Simias concolorBP87]
    |                |    `--N. larvatusB-J84
    |                `--PygathrixFS15
    |                     |--P. nigripesFS15 [=P. nemaeus nigripesFN97]
    |                     `--+--P. cinereus Nadler 1997FS15, FN97 [=P. nemaeus cinereusFN97]
    |                        `--P. nemaeusFS15
         `--Papionini [Papionina, Papioninae]CM79
              |  i. s.: PliopapioN10
              |         ProcynocephalusG91
              |         ParadolichopithecusG91
              |         Gorgopithecus Broom & Robinson 1949SD78
              |           `--G. major (Broom 1940) [=Parapapio major]SD78
              |         Dinopithecus Broom 1937SD78
              |           |--D. brumptiSD78
              |           `--D. ingensSD78
              |         Parapapio Jones 1937SD78
              |           |--P. adoLF95
              |           |--P. antiquusSD78
              |           |--P. broomi [incl. P. makapani Broom & Hughes 1949]WC56
              |           |--P. jonesiSD78
              |           `--P. whiteiSD78
                 |  |    |--M. leucophaeusFS15 [=Papio leucophaeusR84]
                 |  |    `--M. sphinxFS15 [=Papio sphinxR84]
                 |  `--Cercocebus Geoffroy 1812FS15, SD78
                 |       |  i. s.: C. albigenaCM79
                 |       |         C. aterrimusR84
                 |       |--+--C. sanjeiFS15 [=C. galeritus sanjei Wasser 1985 (n. n.)G91]
                 |       |  `--C. torquatusFS15
                 |       `--+--C. atysFS15 [=C. torquatus atysBP87]
                 |          `--+--C. chrysogasterFS15 [=C. galeritus chrysogasterBP87]
                 |             `--+--C. agilisFS15 [=C. galeritus agilisBP87]
                 |                `--C. galeritusFS15
                 `--+--+--Lophocebus Palmer 1903FS15, N10 [=Semnocebus Gray 1870 non Lesson 1840N10]
                    |  |    |--L. albigenaIT07
                    |  |    `--L. aterrimusG91
                    |  `--+--Rungwecebus kipunji Davenport et al. 2006FS15, N10 (see below for synonymy)
                    |     `--PapioFS15
                    `--Theropithecus Geoffroy 1843FS15, CM79
                         |  i. s.: ‘Cynocephalus’ atlanticus Thomas 1884SD78
                         |         T. brumptiSD78
                         |--*T. (Theropithecus) gelada (Rüppell 1835) [=Macacus gelada]CM79
                         `--T. (Simopithecus Andrews 1916)CM79
                              |--T. (S.) darti (Broom & Jensen 1946)CM79, WC56 (see below for synonymy)
                              `--T. (S.) oswaldi [incl. Simopithecus jonathoni Leakey & Whitworth 1958]SD78
Nomen nudum: Cercocebus galeritus sanjei Wasser 1985G91

Rungwecebus kipunji Davenport et al. 2006FS15, N10 [=Lophocebus kipunji Ehardt, Butynski et al. in Jones et al. 2005 (n. n.)N10]

Theropithecus (Simopithecus) darti (Broom & Jensen 1946)CM79, WC56 [incl. Brachygnathopithecus peppercorni Kitching 1952WC56, Gorgopithecus wellsi Kitching 1953WC56]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B-J84] Brandon-Jones, D. 1984. Colobus and leaf monkeys. In: Macdonald, D. (ed.) All the World’s Animals: Primates pp. 102–113. Torstar Books: New York.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

Clutton-Brock, T. H. 1984. Monkeys. In: Macdonald, D. (ed.) All the World’s Animals: Primates pp. 44–45. Torstar Books: New York.

[CW79] Cronin, J. E., & W. E. Meikle. 1979. The phyletic position of Theropithecus: congruence among molecular, morphological, and paleontological evidence. Systematic Zoology 28 (3): 259–269.

[FS15] Faurby, S., & J.-C. Svenning. 2015. A species-level phylogeny of all extant and late Quaternary extinct mammals using a novel heuristic-hierarchical Bayesian approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 14–26.

[FA97] Feiler, A., & T. Nadler. 1997. Recently discovered mammals in Vietnam—present results on taxonomy, zoogeography, status and on the protection of the animals (Mammalia). Zoologische Abhandlungen 49 (21): 331–335.

[F41] Fraser, L. 1841. Letter. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 9: 97.

[G91] Groves, C. P. 1991. A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution revised ed. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[K08] Kellogg, V. L. 1908. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Schwedischen Zoologischen Expedition nach dem Kilimandjaro, dem Meru und den Umgebenden Massaisteppen Deutsch-Ostafrikas 1905–1906, 15. Corrodentia, 4. Mallophaga. Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri-A. B.: Uppsala.

[LF95] Leakey, M. G., C. S. Feibel, I. McDougall & A. Walker. 1995. New four-million-year-old hominid species from Kanapoi and Allia Bay, Kenya. Nature 376: 565–571.

[MH96] Miller, S. A., & J. P. Harley. 1996. Zoology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[N10] Naish, D. 2010. Tetrapod Zoology: Book One. CFZ Press: Bideford (UK).

[R84] Rowell, T. E. 1984. Guenons, macaques and baboons. In: Macdonald, D. (ed.) All the World’s Animals: Primates pp. 74–89. Torstar Books: New York.

[S67] Simons, E. L. 1967. A fossil Colobus skull from the Sudan (Primates, Cercopithecidae). Postilla 111: 1–12.

[SD78] Simons, E. L., & E. Delson. 1978. Cercopithecidae and Parapithecidae. In: Maglio, V. J., & H. B. S. Cooke (eds) Evolution of African Mammals pp. 100–119. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[S66] Swinhoe, R. 1866. Letter to the Secretary respecting a monkey from the island of North Lena, near Hongkong. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 556.

[WC56] Wells, L. H., & H. B. S. Cooke. 1956. Fossil Bovidae from the Limeworks Quarry, Makapansgat, Potgietersrus. Palaeontologia Africana 4: 1–55.

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