Cerithium nodulosum, from Houbrick (1992).

Belongs within: Cerithiimorpha.

Cerithium is a genus of high-spired marine gastropods found in tropical and subtropical waters with the highest diversity in the Indo-Pacific. This genus has been conflated in the past with a number of superficially similar taxa, some belonging to quite different families. Cerithium species are algal-detritus feeders, mostly grazing on diatoms and other microalgae.

Characteristics (from Houbrick 1992): Shell many whorled, turreted, ranging from ovate to fusiform elongate, and sculptured with variously placed varices, axial ribs, and spiral cords ornamented with beads and nodes. Aperture ovate with crenulated outer lip,distinct anal canal and moderately extended, constricted, slightly reflected anterior siphonal canal. Operculum corneous, ovate, and paucispiral with eccentric nucleus. Mantle edge bilobed with small papillae arising from inner lobe. Propodial mucus gland present; in females, ciliated egg-laying groove on right side of foot. Osphradium elongate, narrow, bipectinate, comprised of tiny leaflets. Hypobranchial gland well developed. Radula taenioglossate. Salivary glands pass through nerve ring; esophageal gland present. Stomach large, with style sac, crystalline style and gastric shield. Nervous system epiathroid. Pallial gonoducts open; pallial oviduct with large spermatophore bursa and small posterior seminal receptacle in medial lamina; anterior seminal receptacle sometimes in lateral lamina. Sperm dimorphic, transferred by spermatophores. Egg mass consisting of gelatinous strings.

<==Cerithium Bruguière 1789DK08 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. nodulosum Bruguière 1789W93 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. abbreviatum Leckenby 1858F27b
    |--C. adustumEO64
    |--C. alboliratumC64
    |--C. album Hombron & Jacquinot 1853H09
    |--C. alveolus Hombron & Jacquinot 1854BW09
    |--C. apheles Tenison-Woods 1878F71
    |--C. articulatum Adams & Reeve 1850H09
    |--C. asperum Pease 1861K65
    |--C. atratum (Born 1778) [incl. C. floridanum f. cruzana Usticke 1959]BC01
    |--C. atromarginatum Dautzenberg & Bouge 1933BW09
    |--C. balteatum Philippi 1848H09
    |--C. bicanaliferum Brazier 1877H09
    |--C. boeticum Pease 1861 [=Bittium boeticum]K65
    |--C. calabrumN79
    |--C. calculosum Defrance in Basterot 1825GK02
    |--C. caudatumG79
    |--C. citrinum Sowerby 1855BW09
    |--C. coarctatum Sowerby 1866H09
    |--C. columna Sowerby 1834W93
    |--C. conicum Blainv. 1826 [incl. C. mamillatum]S01
    |--C. contractum Sowerby 1855H09
    |--C. coralium Kiener 1841W93
    |--C. cribarioides Tenison-Woods 1878F71
    |--C. (Aluco) cumingi Adams 1855WG71
    |--C. (Fibula) detectum Stoliczka 1867S98
    |--C. dialeucum Philippi 1849W93
    |--C. eburneum (Bruguière 1792)IZ77
    |--C. echinatum Lamarck 1822BW09
    |--C. egenum Gould 1849BW09
    |--C. eusmilia Tenison-Woods 1879F71
    |--C. eximium Sowerby 1855H09
    |--C. fasciatum Bruguière 1792WG71
    |--C. filosum Phil. 1848C64
    |--C. fragaria Valenciennes 1833C64
    |--C. fucatum Pease 1861K65
    |--C. fusiforme Sowerby 1855H09
    |--C. gibberulum [incl. C. columellare]G79
    |--C. gracile Pease 1861K65
    |--C. gracilentum Mighels 1845J49
    |--C. graciliforme Sowerby 1865H09
    |--C. granosum Kiener 1842H09
    |--‘Bittium’ hiloense Pilsbry & Vanatta 1908 [=B. (*Bittinella) hiloense]H77
    |--C. inaequicostatum Wilckens 1922 (n. d.)F27a
    |--C. interruptum [incl. C. gallapaginis]C64
    |--C. interstriatum Sowerby 1855W93
    |--C. irroratum [incl. C. obesum]C64
    |--C. kochi Philippi 1848H09
    |--C. lachensis [=Campanile lachensis]G92
    |--C. laciniosum Mighels 1845J49
    |--C. lifuense Melvill & Standen 1895BW09
    |--C. lutosum Menke 1828 [incl. Thericium biminiense Pilsbry & McGinty 1949, C. variabile var. calcarea Usticke 1959]BC01
    |--C. maculosum Mighels 1845C64, J49 [incl. C. mediolaeveC64]
    |--C. mitraeforme Sowerby 1855H09
    |--C. moniliferumM01
    |--C. munitum Sowerby 1855BW09
    |--C. musica Valenciennes 1833C64
    |--C. nesioticum Pilsbry & Vanatta 1906W93 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. nigrobalteatum Smith 1884H09
    |--C. nodosumH86
    |--C. novaehiberniae Sowerby 1855H09
    |--C. novaehollandiae Adams in Sowerby 1855W93
    |--C. ocellatumC64
    |--C. pacificum Houbrick 1992W93
    |--C. paxillum Pease 1861K65
    |--C. petrosum Wood 1828H09
    |--C. phoxum Watson 1880W93
    |--C. piperitum Sowerby 1855H09
    |--C. pritchardi Harris 1897 [=Potamides semicostatum Tate 1885 (preoc.)]F27b
    |--C. punctatum Bruguière 1792W93
    |--C. rostratum Sowerby 1855 [=*Ischnocerithium rostratum]W93
    |--C. rubus (Martyn 1784) [=Clava rubus]H09
    |--C. rupestrePP64
    |--C. salebrosum Sowerby 1855BW09
    |--C. salteriana Tenison-Woods 1879F71
    |--C. scabridum Philippi 1849BD86
    |--C. shoplandi Melville 1901M01
    |--C. stercusmuscarumC64
    |--C. taeniatum Sowerby 1865H09
    |--C. tenellum Sowerby 1855 [incl. C. mysterium Hedley 1917, C. tomlini Hedley 1914]W93
    |--C. tessellatum Sowerby 1855H09
    |--C. torresi Smith 1884BW09
    |--C. trailli (Sowerby 1855)BW09
    |--C. turritum Sowerby 1855H09
    |--C. uncinatumC64
    |--C. unilineatum Pease 1861 [=Bittium boeticum unilineatum]K65
    |--C. varicosum [=Cerithidea varicosa]C64
    |--C. variegatum Quoy & Gaimard 1834H09
    |--C. vulgatumPP64
    |--C. wilya Darragh & Kendrick 2008DK08
    `--C. zonatum (Wood 1828) [incl. C. lemniscatum Quoy & Gaimard 1834, C. probleema Iredale 1929]W93

Cerithium Bruguière 1789DK08 [incl. Bittinella Dall 1924H77, Contumax Hedley 1899W93, Ischnocerithium Thiele 1929W93, Ptychocerithium Sacco 1895DK08]

Cerithium nesioticum Pilsbry & Vanatta 1906W93 [=Semivertagus nesioticusBD86; incl. C. collacteum Iredale 1929W93, C. lacteum Kiener 1841 non Philippi 1836BD86, Liocerithium lacteumBD86, C. spiculum Hedley 1899W93]

Cerithium nodulosum Bruguière 1789W93 [incl. *Ce. adansonii Bruguière 1792DK08, *Contumax decollatus Hedley 1899W93, Ce. erythraeonense Lamarck 1822DK08, Co. hedleyi Viader 1951L96]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[DK08] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2008. Silicified Eocene molluscs from the Lower Murchison district, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (3): 217–246.

[EO64] Emerson, W. K., & W. E. Old Jr. 1964. Additional records from Cocos Island. Nautilus 77 (3): 90–92.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[G92] Gingerich, P. D. 1992. Marine mammals (Cetacea and Sirenia) from the Eocene of Gebel Mokattam and Fayum, Egypt: stratigraphy, age, and paleoenvironments. University of Michigan Papers on Paleontology 30: i–ix, 1–84.

[GK02] Gründel, J., & T. Kowalke. 2002. Palaeorissoinidae, a new family of marine and brackish water Rissooidea (Gastropoda, Littorinimorpha). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 226 (1): 43–57.

[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H77] Houbrick, R. S. 1977. Reevaluation and new description of the genus Bittium (Cerithiidae). Veliger 20 (2): 101–106.

Houbrick, R. S. 1992. Monograph of the genus Cerithium Bruguière in the Indo-Pacific (Cerithiidae: Prosobranchia). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 510: 1–211.

[H86] Hutton, F. W. 1886. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[IZ77] Ingham, R. E., & J. A. Zischke. 1977. Prey preferences of carnivorous intertidal snails in the Florida Keys. Veliger 20 (1): 49–51.

[J49] Johnson, R. I. 1949. Jesse Wedgwood Mighels with a bibliography and a catalogue of his species. Occasional Papers on Mollusks 1 (14): 213–231.

[K65] Kay, E. A. 1965. Marine molluscs in the Cuming collection, British Museum (Natural History) described by William Harper Pease. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Zoology Supplement 1: 1–96, 14 pls.

[L96] Loch, I. 1996. Notice: R. Viader collection. Molluscan Research 17: 110.

[M01] Melville, J. C. 1901. A few further remarks upon the Erythrean molluscan fauna, with descriptions of seven species from Aden, in the collection of Commander E. R. Shopland, R.I.M. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 550–556.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[S98] Stilwell, J. D. 1998. Late Cretaceous Mollusca from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Alcheringa 22 (1): 29–85.

[S01] Sturany, R. 1901. Csigák és kagylók [Mollusken]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 69–74. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[W93] Wilson, B. 1993. Australian Marine Shells vol. 1. Prosobranch Gastropods. Part One. Odyssey Publishing: Kallaroo (Western Australia).

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

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