Eurasian nuthatch Sitta europaea, photographed by Paweł Kuźniar.

Belongs within: Muscicapida.
Contains: Troglodytidae.

The Certhioidea is a clade of passerine birds supported by molecular analyses, uniting the families Certhiidae, Sittidae and Troglodytidae. Certhioids are small, mostly dull-coloured birds that generally feed by gleaning insects off vegetation, though Sittidae also eat seeds. The Polioptilidae, gnatcatchers and gnatwrens, are a New World group of small, dainty birds that forage among outer leaves and twigs of trees.

    |  i. s.: Certhiops rummeliOF19
    |--Tichodroma Illiger 1811B94 [TichodromidaeOF19, Tichodrominae]
    |    |--T. murariaBKB15
    |    `--T. phoenicopteraV41
    `--+--Sitta Linnaeus 1758M02 [SittidaeOF19, Sittinae]
       |    |  i. s.: S. azureaJT12
       |    |         S. cashmirensisJT12
       |    |         S. castaneaJT12
       |    |         S. castaneoventrisE42
       |    |         S. formosaJT12
       |    |         S. leucopsisJT12
       |    |         S. magna Ramsay 1876S89
       |    |         S. nagaensisJT12
       |    |         S. neglecta Walden 1870S89
       |    |         S. oenochlamysJT12
       |    |         S. senogalliensis Portis 1887M02
       |    |         S. solangiaeJT12
       |    |         S. variaJ23
       |    |         S. victoriaeJT12
       |    |         S. yunnanensisJT12
       |    |--+--S. neumayerBKB15
       |    |  `--S. tephronotaBKB15
       |    `--+--S. carolinensisBKB15
       |       `--+--+--*S. europaea Linnaeus 1758L58, BKB15, M02 [incl. S. caesiaG73]
       |          |  `--S. himalayensisBKB15
       |          `--+--S. frontalisBKB15
       |             `--+--+--S. pusillaBKB15
       |                |  `--S. pygmaeaBKB15
       |                |       |--S. p. pygmaeaB49
       |                |       `--S. p. melanotisB49
       |                `--+--+--S. krueperiBKB15
       |                   |  `--S. ledantiBKB15
       |                   `--+--S. canadensisBKB15
       |                      `--+--S. villosaBKB15
       |                         `--S. whiteheadiBKB15
       `--+--+--Salpornis Gray 1847B94 [SalpornithidaeOF19, Salpornithinae]
          |  |    `--S. spilonotaOF19
          |  `--Certhia Linnaeus 1758M02 [CerthiidaeOF19, Certhiinae]
          |       |  i. s.: C. carolinianaJ23
          |       |         C. palustrisJ23
          |       |         C. pusilla Linnaeus 1758L58
          |       |--+--+--C. americanaBKB15
          |       |  |  `--C. familiaris Linnaeus 1758BKB15, M02
          |       |  `--+--C. brachydactylaBKB15
          |       |     `--C. hodgsoniJT12
          |       `--+--C. himalayanaBKB15
          |          `--+--+--C. discolorBKB15
          |             |  `--C. manipurensisBKB15
          |             `--+--C. nipalensisBKB15
          |                `--C. tianquanensisBKB15
             |  `--Palaeoscinis [Palaeoscinidae]FP64
             |       `--P. turdirostris Howard 1957U93
             `--Polioptilidae [Polioptilinae]BKB15
                  |--+--Ramphocaenus Vieillot 1819JT12, B94 [Ramphocaeninae]
                  |  |    `--R. melanurusJT12
                  |  |         |--R. m. melanurusE52
                  |  |         `--R. m. rufiventrisE52
                  |  `--MicrobatesBKB15
                  |       |--M. cinereiventrisBKB15
                  |       |    |--M. c. cinereiventrisS18
                  |       |    `--M. c. semitorquatusS18
                  |       `--M. collarisJT12
                  `--Polioptila Sclater 1855BKB15, B94
                       |  i. s.: P. buffoniSS66
                       |         P. clementsiJT12
                       |         P. guianensisJT12
                       |         P. lacteaJT12
                       |         P. lembeyeiJT12
                       |         P. leucogastraSS66
                       |         P. schistaceigulaJT12
                       |         P. superciliarisS18
                       |--P. dumicolaBKB15
                       `--+--+--*P. caerulea (Linné 1766)B94, BKB15, B94 [=Motacilla caeruleaB94]
                          |  `--P. plumbeaBKB15 [incl. Culicivora atricapillaB94]
                          |       |--P. p. plumbeaE52
                          |       `--P. p. bilineataE52
                          `--+--+--P. albilorisBKB15
                             |  `--P. nigricepsBKB15
                             `--+--P. californicaBKB15
                                `--P. melanuraBKB15

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B49] Baker, E. W. 1949. A review of the mites of the family Cheyletidae in the United States National Museum. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 99 (3238): 267–320.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[E52] Eisenmann, E. 1952. Annotated list of birds of Barro Colorado Island, Panama Canal Zone. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 117 (5): 1–62.

[E42] Ewer, W. 1842. List of a collection of birds from India. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 91–93.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[G73] Gauntlett, F. M. 1973. Notes on some Kashmir birds. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (3): 591–615.

[J23] James, E. 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819 and ’20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, sec’y of war: under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. From the notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say, and other gentlemen of the exploring party vol. 1. H. C. Carey & I. Lea: Philadelphia.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[OF19] Oliveros, C. H., D. J. Field, D. T. Ksepka, F. K. Barker, A. Aleixo, M. J. Andersen, P. Alström, B. W. Benz, E. L. Braun, M. J. Braun, G. A. Bravo, R. T. Brumfield, R. T. Chesser, S. Claramunt, J. Cracraft, A. M. Cuervo, E. P. Derryberry, T. C. Glenn, M. G. Harvey, P. A. Hosner, L. Joseph, R. T. Kimball, A. L. Mack, C. M. Miskelly, A. T. Peterson, M. B. Robbins, F. H. Sheldon, L. F. Silveira, B. T. Smith, N. D. White, R. G. Moyle & B. C. Faircloth. 2019. Earth history and the passerine superradiation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (16): 7916–7925.

[S89] Salvadori, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea nella Birmania e nelle regioni vicine. XIX.—Uccelli raccolti nei Monti Carin a nord-est di Tounghoo, nel Pegù presso Rangoon e Tounghoo e nel Tenasserim presso Malewoon. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 369–438.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175–201.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

[U93] Unwin, D. M. 1993. Aves. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 717–737. Chapman & Hall: London.

[V41] Vigne, G. T. 1841. Relating to a collection of birds formed in Thibet and Cashmere. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 9: 6–7.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *