Corsican red deer Cervus elaphus corsicanus, photographed by Iosto Doneddu.

Belongs within: Cervini.

The genus Cervus includes the red deer C. elaphus and related species. Species of this genus are widespread across the Holarctic realm. Males have well-developed branching, often rugose antlers associated with a harem breeding strategy. Young are born spotted but spots are lost at maturity except in the sika deer C. nippon.

<==Cervus Linnaeus 1758GRH06 (see below for synonymy)
|--*C. elaphus Linnaeus 1758G00, HH06, H78 (see below for synonymy)
| |--C. e. elaphusH78
| |--C. e. bactrianus Lydekker 1900BP87, L00
| |--C. e. barbarusH78
| |--C. e. corsicanusC84
| |--C. e. hangluC84
| |--C. e. hippelaphusC84
| |--C. e. macneilliUSDI77
| |--C. e. scoticusC84
| |--C. e. sibiricus Severtzov 1872G00
| |--C. e. wallichiUSDI77
| `--C. e. yarkandensisBP87
`--+--+--C. timorensisHH06
| | |--C. t. timorensisBP87
| | `--C. t. russaBP87
| `--C. unicolorGRH06
| |--C. u. unicolorTB01
| |--C. u. equinusTB01
| `--C. u. nigerAP72
`--+--C. albirostrisHH06
`--+--C. canadensis Erxleben 1777HH06, B75 [=C. elaphus canadensisB75]
| |--C. c. canadensisD81
| |--C. c. merriamiD81
| `--C. c. nelsoniD81
`--C. nippon Temminck 1838HH06, M76 [incl. C. (Hippelaphus) japonicus Sundevall 1846G00]
|--C. n. nipponLE05
|--C. n. grassianusBP87
|--C. n. keramae (Kuroda 1924)I92
|--C. n. kopschiBP87
|--C. n. mandarinusBP87
|--C. n. pseudaxisB91
|--C. n. taiouanusBP87
|--C. n. yakushimae Kuroda & Okada 1950I92
`--C. n. yesoensisLE05

Cervus incertae sedis:
C. affinisL00
C. alces Linnaeus 1758L58 [=*Alce alcesG00]
C. alfrediBP87
C. astylodon (Matsumoto 1924)AC98
C. bezoarticus Linnaeus 1758L58 [incl. C. cuguapara Kerr 1792H48, Odocoeleus suacuapara (l. c.)H48]
C. calamianensisBP87
C. capreolus Linnaeus 1758L58
C. dorothensis Capasso Barbato 1992 [=C. (Leptocervus) dorothensis]AC98
C. elegans [=Rusa elegans]DW04
C. guineensis Linnaeus 1758L58
C. kuhliBP87 [=Hyelaphus kuhliUSDI77]
C. mariannus Desmarest 1820F66
C. philippinusF66
C. philisiC-B07
C. puduS66b
C. pulchellus Imaizumi 1970I92
C. taevanusS66a
C. wapitiG42
C. (Praeelaphus Portis 1920)G00
`--C. (P.) arvernensis Croiset & Jobert 1828G00

Cervus Linnaeus 1758GRH06 [=Elaphus Hamilton Smith 1827G00, Eucervus Aclogue 1899 non Gray 1866G00; incl. Alce Frisch 1775 (nom. inv.) non Blumenbach 1799G00]

*Cervus elaphus Linnaeus 1758G00, HH06, H78 [=C. (*Eucervus) elaphusG00, *Elaphus elaphusG00, C. vulgarisG00; incl. C. vulgaris campestris Botezat 1903 (n. n.) nec Cuvier 1817 nec Wied 1826G00, C. vulgaris montanus Botezat 1903 (n. n.) non C. macrotis var. montanus Caton 1881G00, C. elephus montanusG00]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[AC98] Alcover, J. A., X. Campillo, M. Macias & A. Sans. 1998. Mammal species of the world: additional data on insular mammals. American Museum Novitates 3248: 1–29.

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1–184.

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[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[C84] Cockerill, R. A. 1984. Deer. In: Macdonald, D. (ed.) All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals pp. 80–89. Torstar Books: New York.

[C-B07] Crégut-Bonnoure, E. 2007. Apport des Caprinae et Antilopinae (Mammalia, Bovidae) à la biostratigraphie du Pliocène terminal et du Pléistocène d’Europe. Quaternaire 18 (1): 73–97.

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[DW04] Deng T., Wang X., Ni X. & Liu L. 2004. Sequence of the Cenozoic mammalian faunas of the Linxia Basin in Gansu, China. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition) 78 (1): 8–14.

[F66] Fraser, L. 1866. Exhibition of a pair of horns of Cervus mariannus. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 367–368.

[GRH06] Gilbert, C., A. Ropiquet & A. Hassanin. 2006. Mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies of Cervidae (Mammalia, Ruminantia): systematics, morphology, and biogeography. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 101–117.

[G00] Grubb, P. 2000. Valid and invalid nomenclature of living and fossil deer, Cervidae. Acta Theriologica 45 (3): 289–307.

[G42] Gulliver, G. 1842. Observations on the muscular fibres of the oesophagus and heart in some of the vertebrate animals. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 63–72.

[H78] Hamilton, W. R. 1978. Cervidae and Palaeomerycidae. In: Maglio, V. J., & H. B. S. Cooke (eds) Evolution of African Mammals pp. 496–508. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[H48] Hershkovitz, P. 1948. The technical name of the Virginia deer with a list of the South American forms. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 61: 41–45.

[HH06] Hughes, S., T. J. Hayden, C. J. Douady, C. Tougard, M. Germonpré, A. Stuart, L. Lbova, R. F. Carden, C. Hänni & L. Say. 2006. Molecular phylogeny of the extinct giant deer, Megaloceros giganteus. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 285–291.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[LE05] Lister, A. M., C. J. Edwards, D. A. W. Nock, M. Bunce, I. A. van Pijlen, D. G. Bradley, M. G. Thomas & I. Barnes. 2005. The phylogenetic position of the ‘giant deer’ Megaloceros giganteus. Nature 438: 850–853.

[L00] Lydekker, R. 1900. On an unnamed species of Cervus from Turkestan. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 195–196.

[M76] Masui, M. 1976. Nihon no Doobutsu. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[S66a] Sclater, P. L. 1866a. Notice of some recent additions to the Society’s menagerie. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 80.

[S66b] Sclater, P. L. 1866b. Notice of a pudu deer recently added to the Society’s menagerie. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 104–105.

[TB01] Timm, R. M., & J. H. Brandt. 2001. Pseudonovibos spiralis (Artiodactyla: Bovidae): New information on this enigmatic south-east Asian ox. Journal of Zoology 253: 157–166.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.

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