Chalcidoidea

 Neapterolelaps viridescens, from Desjardins (2004).

Belongs within: Diaprioidea.
Contains: Eucomys, Ectromatini, Coelocybidae, Epichrysomallidae, Systasidae, Metapelma, Neanastatidae, Mymaridae, Tetracampidae, Aphelinidae, Trichogrammatidae, Azotidae, Agaonidae, Eupelmidae, Tanaostigmatidae, Encyrtidae, Eurytomidae, Spalangiinae, Pelecinellidae, Chalcididae, Leucospidae, Cleonymidae, Lyciscidae, Eunotidae, Moranilidae, Torymidae, Megastigmidae, Ormyridae, Diparidae, Cerocephalidae, Neapterolelapinae, Melanosomellidae, Pirenidae, Perilampidae, Pteromalidae.

The Chalcidoidea is a hyperdiverse group of mostly small, parasitoid wasps (though some derived subgroups are phytophagous). Phylogeny within the chalcidoids remains contentious; a large-scale molecular analysis by Munro et al. (2011) was able to recover monophyly for only nine of nineteen generally recognised families (with a tenth family, Rotoitidae, represented in the analysis by only a single exemplar). A combined morphological and molecular analysis by Heraty et al. (2013) was more consistent with previous classifications, but still indicated polyphyly for Aphelinidae, Tetracampidae, Perilampidae and Pteromalidae sensu Bouček (1988). The fossil Khutelchalcis gobiensis from the uppermost Jurassic or lowermost Cretaceous of Mongolia was described as a possible stem-chalcidoid by Rasnitsyn et al. (2004); it retains a more complete wing venation than living chalcidoids, including the presence of a Cu vein. This taxon was excluded from the chalcidoids by Burks et al. (2022) who instead regarded it as Apocrita incertae sedis.

Most recent analyses agree in placing the Mymaridae as the basalmost lineage of modern chalcidoids. Strong morphological synapomorphies for chalcidoids excluding Mymaridae have not been identified (largely because variation within the clade is so extreme), but one potential supporting character is the absence of sensilla from the first antennal flagellomere of non-mymarid males with non-reduced flagellomere counts (Heraty et al. 2013). The most basal lineage after the Mymaridae is probably the Baeomorphidae, a small family known only from New Zealand and Chile, and characterised by 14-segmented antennae, four-segmented tarsi, and the absence of notauli or a distinct prepectus (Bouček 1988).

The clade containing the remaining Chalcidoidea is, again, not morphologically well-characterised but may be supported by the presence of an anelliform first flagellomere (modified or lost in many sub-groups), and an asymmetrical ovipositor structure with an overlapping dorsal valve in cross-section (Heraty et al. 2013). The results of combined morphological and molecular analyses by Heraty et al. (2013) further suggest that this clade may be subdivided between a ‘soft-bodied’ clade containing taxa related to the Aphelinidae and Eulophidae, and a ‘hard-bodied’ clade containing the Chalcididae, Encyrtidae and the majority of the ‘Pteromalidae’. The Signiphoridae belong to the former clade and are small chalcidoids with a smooth thorax with the scutellum fused with the axillae, forming a narrow cross-belt, and with a long undivided clava on the antenna proceeded by two to four anelli (Bouček 1988).

Synapomorphies (from Heraty et al. 2013): Multiporous plate sensilla present on antennae, with sensilla fused to antennal surface along most of length but with distal end free; prepectus (triangular sclerite separating base of forewing from pronotum) present, exposed between pronotum and mesepisternum (reduced in some subgroups); mesothoracic spiracle situated at or above exposed lateral edge of mesoscutum; paired lateral metafurcal pits present at anterior margin of metasternum.

Chalcidoidea (see below for synonymy)
    |--Khutelchalcis Rasnitsyn, Basibuyuk & Quicke 2004 [Khutelchalcididae]RBQ04
    |    `--*K. gobiensis Rasnitsyn, Basibuyuk & Quicke 2004RBQ04
    `--+--MymaridaeHB13
       `--+--Baeomorphidae [Baeomorphinae, Rotoitidae]HB13
          |    |--Chiloe micropteronHB13
          |    |--Rotoita Bouček & Noyes 1987B88
          |    |    `--*R. basalis Bouček & Noyes 1987B88
          |    `--Baeomorpha Brues 1937BM22
          |         `--B. dubitataRJ93
          `--+--+--+--Ceidae [Ceinae, Ceini]HB13
             |  |  |    |--BohpaD07
             |  |  |    |--Cea Walker 1837O08
             |  |  |    |    `--*C. pulicaris Walker 1837O08
             |  |  |    `--Spalangiopelta Masi 1922D07
             |  |  |         |--*S. brachyptera Masi 1922D07
             |  |  |         |--S. apotherismaHB13
             |  |  |         |--S. canadensisHB13
             |  |  |         |--S. ciliataD07
             |  |  |         `--S. feloniaD07
             |  |  `--TetracampidaeHB13
             |  `--+--+--AphelinidaeHB13
             |     |  `--TrichogrammatidaeHB13
             |     `--+--AzotidaeHB13
             |        `--Signiphoridae [Thysanidae, Thysaninae]HB13
             |             |--+--ChartocerusHB13
             |             |  `--Clytina giraudiHB13
             |             `--+--Thysanus aterHB13
             |                `--Signiphora [Signiphorinae]HB13
             |                     |--S. euclidi Girault 1935G35
             |                     |--S. flavellaMH11
             |                     `--S. rectrix Girault 1915GM79
             `--+--AgaonidaeHB13
                `--+--+--+--EupelmidaeHB13
                   |  |  `--Oodera Westwood 1874HB13, B88 [incl. Stellophora Risbec 1951 B88; OoderidaeBM22, Ooderini]
                   |  |       |--*O. gracilis Westwood 1874B88
                   |  |       |--O. formosaBM22
                   |  |       `--*Stellophora’ magnificaB88
                   |  `--+--TanaostigmatidaeHB13
                   |     `--+--EncyrtidaeHB13
                   |        `--Cynipencyrtus [Cynipencyrtidae, Cynipencyrtinae, Cynipencyrtini]HB13
                   |             `--C. flavusHB13
                   `--+--+--EurytomidaeHB13
                      |  `--+--+--SpalangiidaeBM22
                      |     |  |    |--SpalangiinaeHB13
                      |     |  |    `--ErotolepsiinaeBM22
                      |     |  |         |--ErotolepsiaB88
                      |     |  |         |--Balrogia Hedqvist 1977B88
                      |     |  |         |--Eunotopsia Bouček 1988B88
                      |     |  |         |    `--*E. nikitini Bouček 1988B88
                      |     |  |         `--Papuopsia Bouček 1988B88
                      |     |  |              `--*P. setosa Bouček 1988B88
                      |     |  `--PelecinellidaeBM22
                      |     `--+--ChalcididaeHB13
                      |        `--+--LeucospidaeHB13
                      |           `--Chalcedectidae [Chalcedectinae, Chalcedectini, Polychrominae]HB13
                      |                |--Chalcedectus Walker 1852BM22
                      |                |    `--*C. maculicornisB88
                      |                `--Amotura Cameron 1884 (see below for synonymy)B88
                      |                     |--*A. annulicornisB88
                      |                     |--A. cuprescens (Westwood 1874) (see below for synonymy)B88
                      |                     |--*Polychroma’ histrionica [=*Polychromatium histrionicum]B88
                      |                     |--A. meteora (Girault 1927) [=Episystole meteora, Chalcedectus meteora]B88
                      |                     |--A. poeta (Girault 1927) [=*Episystole poeta, Chalcedectus poeta]B88
                      |                     `--*Neochalcodectus’ sinaiticusB88
                      `--+--+--+--CleonymidaeHB13
                         |  |  `--LyciscidaeHB13
                         |  `--+--+--EunotidaeHB13
                         |     |  `--Idioporus LaSalle & Polaszek 1997HB13, BM22 [IdioporidaeBM22, Idioporini]
                         |     |       `--I. affinisHB13
                         |     `--MoranilidaeBM22
                         `--+--+--+--+--TorymidaeHB13
                            |  |  |  `--MegastigmidaeHB13
                            |  |  `--OrmyridaeHB13
                            |  `--+--DiparidaeHB13
                            |     `--CerocephalidaeHB13
                            `--+--+--Collessina Bouček 1975HB13, B88
                               |  |    `--*C. pachyneura Bouček 1975B88
                               |  `--Austrosystasis Girault 1924B88 (see below for synonymy)
                               |       `--*A. atricorpus Girault 1924 [incl. *Eurytomomoidea eleocarpi Girault 1928]B88
                               `--+--+--Micradelus Walker 1834HB13, BM22 [Micradelinae, Micradelini]
                                  |  |    `--M. rotundusHB13
                                  |  `--+--Asaphesinae [Asaphinae, Asaphini]BM22
                                  |     |    |--Asaphes Walker 1834HB13, B88 (see below for synonymy)
                                  |     |    |    |--*A. vulgaris Walker 1834B88
                                  |     |    |    |--A. americanus Girault 1914GM79
                                  |     |    |    |--A. californicus Girault 1917G17g
                                  |     |    |    |--A. rufipes Brues 1908G17g, GM79
                                  |     |    |    `--A. suspensusHB13
                                  |     |    |--CoriotelaBM22
                                  |     |    `--Hyperimerus Girault 1917BM22, G17d
                                  |     |         `--*H. corvus Girault 1917G17d
                                  |     `--+--Herbertiidae [Herbertiinae]HB13
                                  |        |    |--Herbertia Howard 1894 (see below for synonymy)B88
                                  |        |    |    |--*H. lucensB88
                                  |        |    |    |--H. brasiliensisBM22
                                  |        |    |    |--H. indicaB88
                                  |        |    |    |--H. nipponicaB88
                                  |        |    |    `--H. setosa (Dodd in Girault 1915) (see below for synonymy)B88
                                  |        |    |--ExolabrumBM22
                                  |        |    `--VersolabrumBM22
                                  |        `--NeapterolelapinaeHB13
                                  `--+--+--+--MelanosomellidaeHB13
                                     |  |  `--PirenidaeHB13
                                     |  `--Macromesus Walker 1848B88 (see below for synonymy)
                                     |       |--*M. amphiretusB88
                                     |       |--M. americanusHB13
                                     |       `--M. fulvicoxa (Girault 1925) [=*Metasystasis fulvicoxa]B88
                                     `--+--+--PerilampidaeHB13
                                        |  `--+--Jambiya vanharteni Heraty & Darling 2007HB13, HD09
                                        |     `--Eutrichosomatidae [Eutrichosomatinae]BM22
                                        |          |--Eutrichosoma mirabileHB13
                                        |          `--PeckianusHB13
                                        `--PteromalidaeBM22

Chalcidoidea incertae sedis:
  AximopsisG17a
    |--A. javensis Girault 1917G17a
    `--A. tephrosiae Girault 1917G17a
  Megaceratoneura Girault 1917G17a
    `--*M. inusitata Girault 1917G17a
  Paromphaloidomyia Girault 1917G17b
    `--*P. homeri Girault 1917G17b
  Prothymus Girault 1917G17b
    `--*P. novus Girault 1917G17b
  Megatrydymus Girault 1917G17b
    `--*M. taciti Girault 1917G17b
  DimmockiaG17b
    |--D. botticellini Girault 1917G17b
    `--D. secunda Crawford 1910GM79
  ComedoG17b
    |--C. neomexicanus Girault 1917G17b
    |--C. omari Girault 1917G17d
    `--C. orgyiae Fitch 1855GM79
  Hexacladia Ashmead 1891GM79 [incl. Sophencyrtus Crawford 1911G17c, GM79]
    |--H. mexicana Girault 1917G17c
    `--H. townsendi Crawford 1911GM79 [=Sophencyrtus townsendiG17c]
  ParacalocerinusG17e
    |--P. marilandia Girault 1917G17e
    `--P. tertius Girault 1917G17c
  Calocerinus Howard 1892GM79
    `--C. floridanus (Ashmead 1885)GM79
  Habrolepopteryx Ashmead 1900GM79
    `--H. marilandia Girault 1917G17e
  CryptopristusG17c
    |--C. americanus Girault 1917G17c
    `--C. caliginosus (Walker 1833)GM79
  EucomysG17g
  Isodromus pulcher Girault 1917G17c
  Berecyntus Howard 1898GM79
    |--B. bakeri Howard 1898GM79
    |    |--B. b. bakeriG17c
    |    `--B. b. euxoae Girault 1917G17c
    `--B. melanocera (Ashmead 1900)GM79
  Omphalchrysocharis Girault 1917G17g
    |--*O. orientalis Girault 1917G17g
    |--O. ainsliei (Crawford 1912)G17g, GM79 [=Chrysocharis ainslieiG17g]
    |--O. parksi (Crawford 1912)G17g, GM79 [=Chrysocharis parksiG17g]
    `--O. thomsoni (Crawford 1912)G17g, GM79 [=Entedon thomsoniG17g]
  HabrolepoideaG17c
    |--H. aphidiphagusG17c
    |--H. celia Girault 1917G17c
    `--H. perplexa Girault 1917G17g
  Solenotus Forster 1856GM79
  Hyperteles Girault 1917G17d
    `--*H. elongata (Forster 1841)G17d, GM79 [=Oxyomorpha elongataG17d]
  Pseudaphycus Clausen 1915GM79
    |--P. notativentris Girault 1917G17d
    `--P. texanus (Howard 1898)GM79
  Chrysocharodes majoriani Girault 1917G17d
  Uscanopsis carlylei Girault 1916GM79
  Parectromoides Girault 1915G24, GM79 [incl. Parastenoterys Girault 1915G24, GM79]
    `--‘Parastenoterys’ niveiclava Girault 1917G17f
  Paradibrachys Girault 1917G17g
    `--*P. guizoti Girault 1917G17g
  Howardiella tarsata Ashmead 1905GM79
  Parhabritys Girault 1917G17g
    `--*P. nubilipennis (Ashmead 1887)G17g, GM79 [=Megorismus nubilipennisG17g]
  Rhicnopeltoidea Girault 1917G17g
    |--*R. amsterdamensis Girault 1917G17g
    `--R. mallochi (Gahan 1917)GM79 [=Chrysocharis mallochiG17g]
  Parmicromelus Girault 1917G17g
    `--*P. europaeus Girault 1917G17g
  Aphycoideus Williams 1916GM79
    `--*A. io Girault 1917G17g
  Zarhopalus Ashmead 1900GM79 [incl. Anagyrella Girault 1915G17g, GM79]
  Asteropaeus Howard 1898GM79 [incl. Anicetus Howard 1896G17g, GM79]
  Rhopus Forster 1856GM79
    `--R. fuscus (Girault 1912)G17g, GM79 [=Rhopoideus fuscusG17g]
  Diplodontia secunda Girault 1917G17g
  Ophelinoideus Ashmead 1904GM79
  Mirolynx Girault 1916GM79
  Anenistus youngi Girault 1917G17g
  LamprostatusG17g
    |--L. canadensis Girault 1917GM79
    `--L. conicus Girault 1917G17g
  Cirrospilopsis sapientia Girault 1917G17g
  Cryptanusia Girault 1917G17g
    `--*C. albiclava Girault 1917G17g
  Paraolinx Ashmead 1894GM79 [incl. Leucodesmia Howard 1895G17g, GM79]
    `--‘Leucodesmia’ typicaB37
  Epaenasomyia Girault 1917G17h
    `--*E. varicornis Girault 1917G17h
  Paraenasomyia Girault 1915GM79
    |--P. johnsoni Girault 1922G22
    `--P. liszti Girault 1932G32b [=Rhopalencyrtoidea dubia Girault 1915 (preoc.)G32b, GM79]
  Neblatticida tassoniaeformis Girault 1921G21
  HabrolepopterygisG21
    |--H. felis Girault 1915GM79
    `--H. mirabilis Girault 1921G21
  Pseudoligosita variclava Girault 1922G22
  Australanusia tarsalis Girault 1923G23a
  CoccidencyrtusG23a
    |--C. bicoloricornis Girault 1915GM79
    `--C. ipswichia Girault 1923G23a
  Austrobella Girault 1923G28a, G23a [=AustrobeliaG23a]
    `--*A. gargantua Girault 1923G23a
  Ruskiniana Girault 1923G23b
    `--*R. sexguttatipennis Girault 1923G23b
  Pseudanusia Girault 1915GM79
  NezarhopalusG23b
    |--N. caudatus Girault 1915GM79
    |--N. compressifemur Girault 1923G23b
    `--N. perplexus Girault 1925G25
  Lathromeromyia perminuta Girault 1914GM79
  Chrysopophagus Ashmead 1894GM79 [incl. Saranotum Perkins 1906G24, GM79]
  Psylledontus Crawford 1910GM79 [incl. Metallonella Girault 1915G24, GM79]
  Isodromoides Girault 1924GM79 [incl. Neocopidosomyiia Girault 1924G24, GM79]
  Ericydnella Girault 1924GM79 [incl. Cerchysiella Girault 1924G24, GM79]
  RhopalencyrtoideaG25
    |--R. cinctifemur Girault 1925G25
    `--R. purpureusG25
  EcthrodryinusG25
    |--E. ovidivorus Girault 1925G25
    `--E. shakespeariG25
  Mesorhopella Girault 1923GM79
  Paragryon postmarginalis Girault 1926G26
  Shakespearia Girault 1928G28b
    `--*S. flabellata Girault 1928G28b
  PterygogrammaG29b
    |--P. dubium Girault 1912GM79
    |--P. postmarginale Girault 1929G29b
    |--P. semifuscipennis Girault 1912GM79
    `--P. tingoorae Girault 1929G29b
  UrogrammaG29b
    |--U. latreille Girault 1929G29b
    `--U. lucrum Girault 1920GM79
  Japania Girault 1911GM79
    |--J. carbajali Girault 1934G34b
    |--J. ruskini Girault 1929G29b
    `--J. tristis Girault 1912GM79
  CentrobiellaG29b
    |--C. mulierum Girault 1912GM79
    `--C. particula Girault 1929G29b
  ChaetostrichaG29b
    |--C. anima Girault 1912GM79
    |--C. aurea Girault 1912GM79
    |--C. australis Girault 1920GM79
    |--C. concisicilia Girault 1929G29b
    |--C. emma Girault 1929G29b
    |--C. krygeri Girault 1929G29b [=C. pulchra Kryger 1918 (preoc.)G29b, GM79]
    `--C. tridentata Girault 1929G29b
  Emersonopsis arizonensis (Ashmead 1888)GM79 [incl. Entedon cupreicollis Ashmead 1888G30a, GM79, Em. cupreicollisG30a]
  Zaomencyrtus aeripes Girault 1932G32b
  Microrhopus striatithorax Girault 1932G32b
  EchthrogonatopusG34b
    |--E. cinctiventris Girault 1934G34b
    `--E. feraG34b
  Belonura Ashmead 1896GM79
  Thymus Girault 1916GM79
  Phylloxeroxenus Ashmead 1888B88
  Glyphotoma albitarsis Cameron 1912B88
  Trichaulus aeneicorpus Girault 1915 (n. d.)B88
  SelimnusB88
  Rivasia Askew & Nieves-Aldrey 2005F05
    `--*R. fumariae Askew & Nieves-Aldrey 2005F05
  Storeya Bouček 1988B88 [StoreyinaeHB13]
    `--*S. paradoxa Bouček 1988B88
  Parasaphodes Schulz 1906B88 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*P. iceryae (Ashmead 1904) [=*Parasaphes iceryae, *Amiscogaster ruskini Girault 1917]B88
    |--P. aferBM22
    `--P. townsendiB88
  Callimomoides Girault 1926B88 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*C. fuscipennis Girault 1926 [incl. *Aligheria cyanea Girault 1928]B88
    |--C. ovivorus [=*Louricia ovivora]B88
    `--C. robertsi Bouček 1988B88
  EpiencyrtoidesG29a
    |--E. axillaris Girault 1915GM79
    `--E. quinquedentatus Girault 1929G29a
  Austrochoreia Girault 1929G29a
    `--*A. latiscutum Girault 1929G29a
  Choreia Westwood 1833G29a, GM79
  ‘Richteria’ Girault 1920 non Jones 1874G30b, G20
    |--*R. lamennaisi Girault 1920G20
    `--R. bicornuta Girault 1930G30b
  Parectromoidella Girault 1915G31b, GM79 [incl. Eucheiloneuropsis Girault 1922G24, GM79]
    |--P. acaciae Girault 1931G31b
    `--P. lowelli Girault 1922GM79
  Mesanusia speciosa Girault 1932G32a
  LiothoraxG32a
    |--L. glabriscutellum Girault 1932G32a
    `--L. longiartus Girault 1932G32a
  Aenasomyiella parkeri Girault 1932G32a
  Coccidoxenus Crawford 1913G32a, GM79 [incl. Tetracnemella Girault 1915G24, GM79]
    |--C. mexicanus Girault 1917G17c
    `--C. rubensi Girault 1932G32a
  ArhopoideusG32a
    |--A. brevicornis Girault 1915GM79 [incl. Tetracnemus pretiosusG32a]
    |--A. ipswichia Girault 1922G22
    |--A. mozarti Girault 1932G32c
    `--A. tertius Girault 1923GM79
  ‘Schilleria’ Girault 1932 non Dahl 1907G32a
    `--*S. pulchra Girault 1932G32a
  EctromatiniG32a
  HelegonatopusG32a
    |--H. parkeri Girault 1932G32a
    `--H. pseudophanes Perkins 1906GM79
  Epanusia Girault 1913G32a, GM79
    |--E. beenleighi Girault 1923G23b
    |--E. bifasciata Girault 1913GM79
    `--E. laticincta Girault 1932G32a
  BaoanusiaG32a
    |--B. albifunicle Girault 1932G32a
    `--B. lotae Girault 1922GM79
  CristatithoraxG32a
    |--C. beerwahiG32a
    |--C. bidentimaxillaeG32a
    |    |--C. b. bidentimaxillaeG32a
    |    `--C. b. poeta Girault 1932G32a
    |--C. latiscapus Girault 1916GM79
    |--C. partipes Girault 1932G32a
    |--C. quadricolor Girault 1915GM79
    `--C. regis Girault 1932G32a
  Sarothrus io Girault 1932G32a
  AchrysopophagusG32a
    |--A. americanus Girault 1917G17c
    |--A. aureipleurum Girault 1932G32a
    |--A. clavatus Girault 1915GM79
    |--A. dactylopii (Howard 1885)GM79
    `--A. nigriflagellum Girault 1932G32a
  Oaphycus Girault 1932G32a
    `--*O. sanguinithorax (Girault 1915)G32a, GM79 [=Aphycus sanguinithoraxG32a]
  NeobrachistaG32a
    |--N. javae Girault 1917G17a
    `--N. novifasciataG32a
         |--N. n. novifasciataG32a
         `--N. n. leptopsi Girault 1932G32a
  ZarhopaloidesG32a
    |--Z. axillaris Girault 1915GM79
    |--Z. gracilis Girault 1915GM79
    `--Z. speciosus Girault 1932G32a
  AphycopsisG32c
    |--A. australiensis (Howard 1898)GM79
    `--A. bicinctitibiae Girault 1932G32c
  Stenoteropsis Girault 1915G32c, GM79
    `--S. papilionidis Girault 1932G32c
  Epitetracnemus quadriguttus Girault 1932G32c
  MatritiaG32c
    |--M. gratis Girault 1932G32c
    `--M. hebes Girault 1929GM79
  Diversinervus Silvestri 1914G33a, GM79
  XanthoencyrtusG33a
    |--X. garibaldia Girault 1933G33a
    `--X. keatsi (Girault 1915)GM79
  Matricia delicata Girault 1933G33b
  AnthemusG34a
    |--A. hilliG34a
    `--A. nigriceps Girault 1934G34a
  Australufens Girault 1935G35
    `--*A. varicornis Girault 1935G35
  Cowperella Girault 1935G35
    `--*C. aeneifrons Girault 1935G35
  Borrowella Girault 1923G35, GM79
    |--B. bioculata Girault 1923GM79
    `--B. consobrina Girault 1923G23a
  ParasyrphophagusG35
    |--P. casuarinae Girault 1934 [=Parasyrpophagus (l. c.) casuarinae]G34b
    |--P. homeri Girault 1935G35
    `--P. semiargentipes Girault 1915GM79
  LeimacisG36
    |--L. australia Girault 1916GM79
    `--L. hilaris Girault 1936G36
  Baocharis marlatti Ashmead 1888G17g, GM79 [incl. Aphelinus subapterus Girault 1916GM79]
  Diomerus armatusBM76
  NeodiparidaeBM22
    |--Neodipara Erdős 1955 [Neodiparinae, Neodiparini]BM22
    |    `--N. masneriBM22
    `--Elatoides Nikolskaya 1952B88 [ElatoidinaeBM22]
         `--*E. nigerB88
  Brachycerites Hong 2002 [Brachyceritidae]H02
    `--*B. furvus Hong 2002H02
  Eopteromalites Hong 2002H02
    `--*E. fushunensis Hong 2002H02
  Expansicornia Hong 2002 [Expansicornidae]H02
    `--*E. conulata Hong 2002H02
  Zatropis alboclavus [=Z. albiclavatus (l. c.)]GT96
  Aphidencyrtus aphidivorusRD77
  DiversinitidaeBM22
  Boucekiidae [Boucekiini]BM22
    |--Boucekius Gibson 2003 [Boucekiidae, Boucekiini]BM22
    `--Chalcidiscelis Ashmead 1899BM22, B88
         `--*C. koebelei Ashmead 1899B88
  Heydeniidae [Heydeniini, Heydenini]BM22
    |--HeydeniopsisB88
    `--Heydenia Förster 1856 non Fresen. 1852 (ICBN) (see below for synonymy)B88
         |--*H. pretiosaB88
         |--H. burgeoni [=Lycisca burgeoni, *Risbecisca burgeoni]B88
         |--H. cristatipennis (Girault 1924) [=Paraheydenia cristatipennis]B88
         |--H. longicollis (Cameron 1912) [=*Paraheydenia longicollis]B88
         |--*Heydenisca’ mateuiB88
         |--*Pterooderella’ ornataB88
         `--H. trinodis Bouček 1988B88
  Hetreulophidae [Hetreulophini]BM22
    |--Zeala Bouček 1988B88
    |    `--*Z. walkerae Bouček 1988B88
    |--Hetreulophus Girault 1915 [incl. Schizonotella Girault 1927]B88
    |    |--*H. bifasciatifrons Girault 1915B88
    |    |--H. eupelmoideus (Girault 1927) [=*Schizonotella eupelmoidea]B88
    |    `--H. voltairei Girault 1921B88
    `--Omphalodipara Girault 1923BM22, B88 [incl. Froudeana Girault 1928B88]
         |--*O. splendida Girault 1923B88
         `--O. clavicornis (Dodd 1924) [=Hetreulophus clavicornis, *Froudeana clavicornis]B88
  CoelocybidaeBM22
  EpichrysomallidaeBM22
  SystasidaeBM22
  EnoggerinaeBM22
    |--Enoggera Girault 1926 [incl. Enoggerella Girault 1926]B88
    |    |--*E. polita Girault 1926B88
    |    `--E. nassaui (Girault 1926) [=*Enoggerella nassaui]B88
    `--Ausasaphes Bouček 1988BM22, B88
         |--*A. pallipes Bouček 1988B88
         `--A. atripes Bouček 1988B88
  Eopelma Gibson 1989BM22
    `--*E. mystax Gibson 1989BM22
  Kerya Bouček 1988 [Keryinae, Keryini]BM22
    `--*K. antennalis Bouček 1988B88
  Cales Howard 1907H83 [incl. Diaspidophilus Brèthes 1914H83, Paranthemus Girault 1915H83; CalesidaeBM22, Calesinae]
    |--*C. noackiMH11
    |--C. berryiMH11
    |--*Diaspidophilus’ pallidusH83
    `--C. spenceri [=*Paranthemus spenceri]H83
  MetapelmaBM22
  NeanastatidaeBM22
  ElachertoideaBM22
  EubeckerellaBM22
  PromerisusBM22
  SenniaBM22
  TripteromalusBM22

Amotura Cameron 1884 [incl. Episystole Girault 1927, Neochalcodectus Masi 1936, Polychroma Westwood 1874 non Dejean 1836, Polychromatium Dalla Torre 1897]B88

Amotura cuprescens (Westwood 1874) [=Polychroma cuprescens, Chalcedectus cuprescens, Polychromatium cuprescens]B88

Asaphes Walker 1834HB13, B88 [incl. Isocratus Förster 1856B88, Parectroma Brethes 1913B88]

Austrosystasis Girault 1924B88 [incl. Eurytomomoidea Girault 1928B88; AustrosystasinaeHB13]

Callimomoides Girault 1926B88 [incl. Aligheria Girault 1928B88, Louricia Ferrière 1936B88; LouriciinaeHB13, Louriciini]

Chalcidoidea [Brachymeriinae, Brachyscelidiphaginae, Callimomidae, Chalcidites, Chalcitellini, Eupelmini, Halticopterini, Hormoceroidae, Lelapini, Myinoidae, Ormocerides, Ormoceroidae, Pteromalides, Spalangoidae, Tetracampoidae, Tridymidae]

Herbertia Howard 1894 [incl. Tetracampoides Dodd in Girault 1915, Trydymiformis Girault 1915]B88

Herbertia setosa (Dodd in Girault 1915) [=*Tetracampoides setosus; incl. *Trydymiformis australiensis Girault 1915]B88

Heydenia Förster 1856 non Fresen. 1852 (ICBN) [incl. Heydenisca Hedqvist 1967, Paraheydenia Cameron 1912, Pterooderella Risbec 1952, Risbecisca Hedqvist 1960]B88

Macromesus Walker 1848B88 [incl. Crossotomoria Delucchi 1956B88, Metasystasis Girault 1925B88, Wesenbergia Kryger 1943B88; Macromesidae, MacromesinaeHB13]

Parasaphodes Schulz 1906B88 [=Amiscogaster Girault 1917B88, Parasaphes Ashmead 1904 non Candéze 1882B88; ParasaphodinaeHB13]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B37] Balduf, W. V. 1937. Bionomic notes on the common bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis Haw., (Lepid., Psychidae) and its insect enemies (Hym., Lepid.). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 39 (7): 169–184.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M. & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[BM22] Burks, R., M.-D. Mitroiu, L. Fusu, J. M. Heraty, P. Janšta, S. Heydon, N. D.-S. Papilloud, R. S. Peters, E. V. Tselikh, J. B. Woolley, S. van Noort, H. Baur, A. Cruaud, C. Darling, M. Haas, P. Hanson, L. Krogmann & J.-Y. Rasplus. 2022. From hell’s heart I stab at thee! A determined approach towards a monophyletic Pteromalidae and reclassification of Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 94: 13–88.

[D07] Desjardins, C. A. 2007. Phylogenetics and classification of the world genera of Diparinae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Zootaxa 1647: 1–88.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[G17a] Girault, A. A. 1917a. New Javanese Hymenoptera. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 59–71).

[G17b] Girault, A. A. 1917b. New chalcid flies. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 72–77).

[G17c] Girault, A. A. 1917c. Descriptiones stellarum novarum. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 80–101).

[G17d] Girault, A. A. 1917d. Descriptiones hymenopterorum chalcidoidicarum variorum cum observationibus. III. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 102–111).

[G17e] Girault, A. A. 1917e. Chalcidoidea nova Marilandensis. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 112–113).

[G17f] Girault, A. A. 1917f. Chalcidoidea nova Marilandensis. II. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 114–115).

[G17g] Girault, A. A. 1917g. Descriptiones hymenopterorum chalcidoidicarum variorum cum observationibus. V. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 116–131).

[G17h] Girault, A. A. 1917h. Chalcidoidea nova Marilandensis. III. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 132–137).

[G20] Girault, A. A. 1920. Some insects never before seen by mankind. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 157–160).

[G21] Girault, A. A. 1921. New animals of Australia and old men of the earth. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 161–163).

[G22] Girault, A. A. 1922. The true remedy for head lice, dedication of a new animal to the quality of majesty and so forth. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 166).

[G23a] Girault, A. A. 1923a. Loves wooed and won in Australia. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 167–169).

[G23b] Girault, A. A. 1923b. Microscopitis, womanitis and new Hexapoda. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 170–177).

[G24] Girault, A. A. 1924. Homo perniciosus and new Hymenoptera. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 178–181).

[G25] Girault, A. A. 1925. An essay on when a fly is lovable, the ceremony of baptizing some and unlovely hate. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 187–190).

[G26] Girault, A. A. 1926. New pests from Australia. V. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 206–207).

[G28a] Girault, A. A. 1928a. A prodigeous discourse on wild animals. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 218–220).

[G28b] Girault, A. A. 1928b. Some new hexapods stolen from authority. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 221–224).

[G29a] Girault, A. A. 1929a. Description of a case of lunacy in Homo and of six-legged articulates. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 262–265).

[G29b] Girault, A. A. 1929b. New pests from Australia. VI. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 266–269).

[G30a] Girault, A. A. 1930a. New pests from Australia. VIII. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 273–277).

[G30b] Girault, A. A. 1930b. New pests from Australia. IX. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 278–279).

[G31] Girault, A. A. 1931. Hymenoptera, Thysanoptera nova Australiensis. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 284–285).

[G32a] Girault, A. A. 1932a. New pests from Australia, X. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 286–291).

[G32b] Girault, A. A. 1932b. Hymenoptera, Thysanoptera nova Australiensis. II. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 292).

[G32c] Girault, A. A. 1932c. New lower Hymenoptera from Australia and India. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 293–298).

[G33a] Girault, A. A. 1933a. Some beauties inhabitant not of commercial boudoirs but of Nature’s bosom, notably new insects. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 299–303).

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