Chalybion

Chalybion japonicum, copyright Christophe Barthélémy.

Belongs within: Sphecidae.

Chalybion is a subcosmopolitan genus (absent in South America and most of Australia) of metallic blue or black-and-yellow wasps that nest in pre-existing cavities such as holes in wood or crevices in walls (Bohart & Menke 1976).

Characters (from Bohart & Menke 1976): Lower three-fifths of inner orbit usually straight, curving in towards midline of face above, orbits converging above or parallel except converging below in many males; vertex not or only slightly elevated above eyes; postocular area not elongate; head with much erect hair; frons above sockets elevated as a flat or sometimes concave plate of which lower angles overhang sockets; flagellomere I about equal to length of II, male flagellomeres with placoids which may be irregular or weakly defined (exceptionally absent); sockets narrowly separated from or contiguous with frontodypeal suture; clypeus long, width 1.0–1.33 times length, disk weakly to strongly convex, often with a median ridge, free margin usually with teeth or lobes; mandible simple or with inner subapical tooth; mouthparts short, third maxillary palpal segment slightly to broadly expanded on one side; hypostomal carina ending near mandible socket; occipital carina usually a complete ring or nearly so, contiguous with or narrowly separated from hypostomal carina; collar usually about half as long as broad but occasionally shorter or longer, disk nearly always strongly indented mesally; propodeum long, without dorsal enclosure, posterior face often a gradual slope; propodeal side without spiracular groove; episternal sulcus extending to anteroventral margin of pleuron, scrobal sulcus usually present; marginal cell usually acuminate apically, submarginal cell II usually strongly narrowed anteriorly, rarely petiolate, receiving both recurrent veins; third anal vein of hindwing well separated from wing margin, long; midcoxae nearly contiguous; tibiae not spinose; female without a foretarsal rake; tarsi usually without plantulae; apicoventral blade-like setae of hindtarsomere V narrow, separated by four or more times a setal width; claw of hind leg often simple; petiole shorter or longer than hindcoxa or hindbasitarsus; male tergum VIII usually with cerci; female sternum IV (and rarely III) sometimes with hair mat which may be in a depression, sterna IV–V of male with velvety micropubescence (rarely II–VI with fimbriae); male sternum VIII triangular or with a slender to broad finger-like apical process; head of digitus variable, penis valve head with teeth on ventral margin.

<==Chalybion Dahlbom 1843C85 [=Chalybium Agassiz 1847BM76]
| i. s.: C. mortuum Cockerell 1907BM76
|--C. (Chalybion)BM76
| |--C. (C.) californicum (Saussure 1867)BM76 (see below for synonymy)
| |--C. (C.) accline (Kohl 1918)BM76 [=Sceliphron (C.) acclineK18]
| |--C. (C.) bengalense (Dahlbom 1845)BM76 (see below for synonymy)
| |--C. (C.) benoiti Leclercq 1955BM76
| |--C. (C.) bocandei (Spinola 1851) [=Ammophila bocandei]BM76
| |--C. (C.) bonneti Leclercq 1966BM76
| |--C. (C.) convexum (Smith 1876)BM76 [=Pelopoeus convexusBM76, Sceliphron (C.) convexumK18]
| |--C. (C.) dolichothorax (Kohl 1918)BM76 [=Sceliphron (C.) dolichothoraxK18]
| |--C. (C.) fabricator (Smith 1860)BM76 (see below for synonymy)
| |--C. (C.) frontale (Kohl 1906)BM76 [=Sceliphron (C.) frontaleK18]
| |--C. (C.) fuscipenne (Smith 1856)BM76 [=Pelopoeus fuscipennisBM76, Sceliphron (C.) fuscipenneK18]
| |--C. (C.) gredleri (Kohl 1918)BM76 [=Sceliphron (C.) gredleriK18]
| |--C. (C.) heinii (Kohl 1906)BM76 [=Sceliphron (C.) heiniiK18; incl. S. planatum Arnold 1951BM76]
| |--C. (C.) japonicum (Gribodo 1883)BM76 (see below for synonymy)
| | |--C. j. japonicumBM76
| | `--C. j. punctatum (Kohl 1888)BM76 (see below for synonymy)
| |--C. (C.) klapperichi (Balthasar 1957) [=Sceliphron klapperichi]BM76
| |--C. (C.) laevigatum (Kohl 1888)BM76 (see below for synonymy)
| | |--C. l. laevigatumBM76
| | `--C. l. sommereni (Turner 1920) (see below for synonymy)BM76
| |--C. (C.) madecassum (Gribodo 1883)BM76 (see below for synonymy)
| |--C. (C.) malignum (Kohl 1906)BM76 [=Sceliphron (C.) malignumK18; incl. S. (C.) horni Strand 1915K18]
| |--C. (C.) minos (Beaumont 1965) [=Sceliphron minos]BM76
| |--C. (C.) ommissum (Kohl 1889)BM76 [=Pelopoeus (C.) ommissusK18, Sceliphron (C.) ommissumK18]
| |--C. (C.) schulthessirechbergi (Kohl 1918)BM76 [=Sceliphron (C.) schulthessirechbergiK18]
| |--C. (C.) targionii (Caruccio 1872)BM76 (see below for synonymy)
| |--C. (C.) tibiale (Fabricius 1781)BM76 (see below for synonymy)
| |--C. (C.) turanicum (Gussakovskij 1935) [=Sceliphron turanicum]BM76
| |--C. (C.) walteri (Kohl 1889)BM76 [=Pelopoeus (C.) walteriK18, Sceliphron (C.) walteriK18]
| `--C. (C.) zimmermanni Dahlbom 1843BM76 (see below for synonymy)
| |--C. z. zimmermanniBM76
| |--C. z. aztecum (Saussure 1867)BM76 [=Pelopoeus (C.) aztecusK18; incl. S. (C.) monstrosum Kohl 1918K18, BM76]
| `--C. z. peninsularum Bohart & Menke 1963BM76
`--C. (Hemichalybion Kohl 1918)BM76
|--C. (H.) spinolae (Lepeletier 1845)BM76 (see below for synonymy)
| |--C. s. spinolaeBM76
| |--C. s. ‘rufopictum’ (Magretti 1884)BM76 (see below for synonymy)
| `--C. s. saussurei (Kohl 1918)BM76 [=Sceliphron (Hemichalybion) saussureiK18]
|--C. (H.) clypeatum (Fairmaire 1858)BM76 (see below for synonymy)
| |--C. c. clypeatumBM76
| |--C. c. kiloense (Leclercq 1955) [=Sceliphron kiloense]BM76
| `--C. c. lusingi (Leclercq 1955) [=Sceliphron lusingi]BM76
|--C. (H.) femoratum (Fabricius 1781)BM76 (see below for synonymy)
|--C. (H.) fuscum (Lepeletier 1845)BM76 (see below for synonymy)
`--C. (H.) sumatranum (Kohl 1884)BM76 [=Pelopoeus sumatranusBM76, Sceliphron (H.) sumatranumK18]

Chalybion (Chalybion) bengalense (Dahlbom 1845)BM76 [=Pelopoeus (Cha.) bengalensisK18, Cha. bengalensisK18, Sceliphron (Cha.) bengalenseK18; incl. Chlorion ferox Westwood 1837BM76, Sphex (Chlorion) feroxBM76, Sp. ferus Drury 1782BM76, Sp. chrysis nitidula Christ 1791K18, Sp. smaragdinus Christ 1791BM76, Sp. violacea Fabricius 1775 non Scopoli 1763C85, Chalybion violaceumK18, Pelopoeus (Chalybion) violaceusK18, Sceliphron violaceumBM76]

Chalybion (Chalybion) californicum (Saussure 1867)BM76 [=Pelopeus (C.) californicusK18; incl. Sphex caeruleus Linnaeus 1767 non Linnaeus 1758C85, *Chalybion caeruleumC85, Sceliphron (Chalybion) coeruleumK18, Pelopaeus coeruleusK18, Pelopoeus (C.) coeruleusK18, Sphex caeruleanaK18, Sp. cyaneus Fabricius 1775 non Linnaeus 1758BM76, Chalybion cyaneumBM76, Pelopoeus (Chalybion) cyaneumK18, Pel. cyaneusK18, Pepsis cyaneaK18, Sceliphron cyaneumK18]

Chalybion (Chalybion) fabricator (Smith 1860)BM76 [=Pelopaeus fabricatorBM76, Sceliphron (C.) fabricatorK18; incl. S. (C.) gnavum Kohl 1918K18, BM76]

Chalybion (Chalybion) japonicum (Gribodo 1883)BM76 [=Pelopoeus japonicusBM76; incl. C. curvatum Ritsema 1880 non Pelopoeus curvatus Smith 1870BM76, Sceliphron (Chalybion) curvatumK18, C. japonicum Pérez 1905 non Pelopoeus japonicus Gribodo 1883BM76, Sceliphron ritsemae Dalla Torre 1897BM76]

Chalybion (Chalybion) japonicum punctatum (Kohl 1888)BM76 [=Pelopoeus (C.) punctatusK18, Sceliphron (C.) punctatumK18; incl. S. (C.) degenerans Kohl 1918K18, BM76, S. (C.) inflexum Sickmann 1894K18, BM76]

Chalybion (Chalybion) laevigatum (Kohl 1888)BM76 [=Pelopoeus (C.) laevigatusK18, Sceliphron (C.) laevigatumK18; incl. Pelopoeus chalybeus Smith 1856 non Vander Linden 1827BM76, Sceliphron cubitaloide Strand 1910BM76, Sc. levigatum Dalla Torre 1897BM76, Sphex nigrithorax Benoit 1951BM76]

Chalybion (Chalybion) laevigatum sommereni (Turner 1920) [=Sceliphron sommereni; incl. Ammophila cyanea Cameron 1908 non Fabricius 1775, Sceliphron perpulchrum Arnold 1934]BM76

Chalybion (Chalybion) madecassum (Gribodo 1883)BM76 [=Pelopoeus madecassusBM76, Sceliphron (C.) madecassumK18; incl. Pelopoeus purpurescens Pérez 1885K18, S. purpurescensBM76, S. violaceum Saussure 1892 non Sphex violaceus Fabricius 1775K18]

Chalybion (Chalybion) targionii (Caruccio 1872)BM76 [=Pelopoeus targioniiBM76, Sceliphron (C.) targioniiK18; incl. P. flebilis Lepeletier 1845BM76]

Chalybion (Chalybion) tibiale (Fabricius 1781)BM76 [=Sphex tibialisBM76, Pelopoeus (C.) tibialisK18, Pepsis tibialisK18, Sceliphron (C.) tibialeK18]

Chalybion (Chalybion) zimmermanni Dahlbom 1843BM76 [=Sceliphron (C.) zimmermanniK18, Pelopoeus (C.) zimmermanniK18; incl. P. texanus Cresson 1872BM76, Chalybion texanumK18]

Chalybion (Hemichalybion) clypeatum (Fairmaire 1858)BM76 [=Pelopoeus clypeatusBM76; incl. P. brachystylus Kohl 1888BM76, Sceliphron (Hemichalybion) brachystylusK18]

Chalybion (Hemichalybion) femoratum (Fabricius 1781)BM76 [=Sphex femorataK18, C. femorataK18, Pepsis femorataK18, Pelopoeus (Chalybion) femoratusK18, Sceliphron (Chalybion) femoratumK18; incl. Pelopaeus chalybeus Vander Linden 1827BM76]

Chalybion (Hemichalybion) fuscum (Lepeletier 1845)BM76 [=Pelopoeus fuscusBM76, Sceliphron (Pelopoeus) fuscum non S. fuscum Klug 1801K18; incl. Sceliphron taprobanense Strand 1915BM76, S. (Hemichalybion) taprobanenseK18]

Chalybion (Hemichalybion) spinolae (Lepeletier 1845)BM76 [=Pelopaeus spinolaeBM76; incl. Pelopoeus eckloni Dahlbom 1845BM76, Sceliphron (*Hemichlaybion) eckloniK18, BM76]

Chalybion (Hemichalybion) spinolae ‘rufopictum’ (Magretti 1884)BM76 [=Pelopaeus spinolae var. rufopictus non Pelopoeus rufopictus Smith 1856BM76, K18, Sceliphron (H.) eckloni var. rufopictaK18]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[C85] Cardale, J. C. 1985. Vespoidea and Sphecoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 150–303. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[K18] Kohl, F. F. 1918. Die Hautflügergruppe “Sphecinae”. IV. Teil. Die natürliche Gattung Sceliphron Klug (Pelopoeus Latr.). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museum in Wien 32: 1–171.

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