Silversides Alestes baremose, copyright Marc Towers.

Belongs within: Ostariophysi.
Contains: Characidae.

The Characiformes are a group of tropical freshwater fish found in Africa and the Neotropical region.

Characters (from Bond 1996): Orbitosphenoid, parietal, symplectic and subopercular bones present; jaw teeth present, opposing pharyngeal teeth usually present; barbels absent; first hypural separated from compound ural centrum; adipose fin present.

Characiformes [Caracinoidei]
    |  i. s.: Paracheirodon innesi B96
    |         Probolobus heterostomus B96
    |         Metynnis B96
    |         Colossoma macropomum G88
    |         Stethaprion erythrops SL86
    |–Santanichthys diasii AS09
    `–+–Citharinoidei B-RB13
       |    |–Citharinus B96 [Citharinidae B-RB13, Citharininae]
       |    |    |–C. citharus B96
       |    |    `–C. congicus B96
       |    `–Distichodus NE12 [Distichodontidae B-RB13, Distichodontinae]
       |         |–D. maculatus NE12
       |         |–D. notospilus SLH06
       |         `–D. rostratus SL86
       `–Characoidei B-RB13
            |  i. s.: Acestrorhynchus GM01 [Acestrorhynchidae B-RB13]
            |         Chalceus SM03 [Chalceidae B-RB13]
            |           `–C. macrolepidotus SM03
            |         Crenuchidae [Crenuchinae] B-RB13
            |         Ctenoluciidae [Xiphostomidae] B-RB13
            |         Hoplias P93 [Erythrinidae B-RB13]
            |           `–H. malabaricus SL86 [incl. Macrodon ferox Gill 1858 F16, M. trahira Regan 1906 F16]
            |         Gasteropelecidae B-RB13
            |           |–Gasteropelecus B96
            |           |–Carnegiella B96
            |           `–Thoracocharax B96
            |         Hemiodontidae B-RB13
            |           |–Micromischodus B96
            |           `–Bivibranchia [Hemiodontinae] B96
            |         Hepsetus GM01 [Hepsetidae B-RB13]
            |           `–H. odoe B96
            |         Lebiasinidae B-RB13
            |           |–Nannostomus [Pyrrulininae] B96
            |           `–Lebiasina [Lebiasininae] B96
            |                `–L. bimaculatus B96
            |         Parodon F18 [Parodontidae B-RB13, Parodontinae]
            |           |–P. affinis B96
            |           `–P. paraguayensis F18
            |         Prochilodus F15 [Prochilodontidae B-RB13, Prochilodontinae]
            |           |–P. nigricans F15
            |           `–P. steindachneri F15
            |         Serrasalmidae [Serrasalminae] B-RB13
            |           |–Pygobrycon GM01
            |           |–Pygocentrus piraya B96, F15
            |           `–Serrasalmus GM01
            |                |–S. elongatus B96
            |                `–S. rhombeus F15
            |         Triportheidae B-RB13
            |         Curimata P93 [Curimatidae B-RB13, Curimatinae]
            |           |–C. argenteus Gill 1858 F16
            |           |–C. cyprinoides F15
            |           `–C. mosesi Travassos & Silva Santos 1955 P93
            |         Iguanodectidae [Iguanodectinae] B-RB13
            |–+–Brycon NE12 [Bryconidae B-RB13]
            |  |    `–B. pesu NE12
            |  `–+–Characidae NE12
            |     `–Leporinus NE12 [Anostomidae P93, Anostominae]
            |          `–L. copelandii NE12
            `–Alestidae [Alestiinae] SM03
                 |–Phenacogrammus interruptus NE12
                 |–Hydrocynus goliath B96
                 `–Alestes G74
                      |–A. baremose B68
                      |–A. imberi B50
                      |–A. jacksoni G74
                      |–A. macrophthalmus B50
                      `–A. sadleri G74

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[B-RB13] Betancur-R., R., R. E. Broughton, E. O. Wiley, K. Carpenter, A. López, C. Li, N. I. Holcroft, D. Arcila, M. Sanciangco, J. C. Cureton, II, F. Zhang, T. Buser, M. A. Campbell, J. A. Ballesteros, A. Roa-Varon, S. Willis, W. C. Borden, T. Rowley, P. C. Reneau, D. J. Hough, G. Lu, T. Grande, G. Arratia & G. Ortí. 2013. The tree of life and a new classification of bony fishes. PLoS Currents Tree of Life April 18 2013. doi: 10.1371/currents.tol.53ba26640df0ccaee75bb165c8c26288.

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[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[G74] Greenwood, P. H. 1974. The cichlid fishes of Lake Vistoria, East Africa: the biology and evolution of a species flock. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Zoology Suppl. 6: 1–134.

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