Cheilostomata

Steginoporella magnilabris, from Gall (2019).

Belongs within: Bryozoa.
Contains: Calescharidae, Arachnopusioidea, Mamilloporoidea, Phidoloporidae, Celleporidae, Hippothoidae, Lepraliellidae, Catenicelloidea, Smittinidae, Lepraliomorpha, Flustridae, Cribrilinidae, Membraniporidae, Electridae, Bugulidae, Beaniidae, Candidae, Calloporidae, Thalamoporellidae.

The Cheilostomata are a group of bryozoans in which the individual zooids are calcareous and box-like, and have a small orifice closed by a hinged, chitinous operculum (Prothero 1998). They have historically been divided between the Anasca and Ascophora, based on whether the frontal wall of the autozooid is (respectively) membranous or calcified, though the former group is probably paraphyletic to the latter.

Colonies on the move
Published 1 April 2009
Lunulitiform colony, from Aaron O’Dea.

Susannah of Wanderin’ Weeta has presented a nice overview of bryozoans. Bryozoans, for those as don’t know ’em, are tiny colonial aquatic animals, and are one of the groups of organisms that I personally think are most unfairly overlooked. A great many people will have probably never heard of them, but they are not uncommon, they or the remains of their colonies are easily found attached to rocks, shells, etc. at any beach, and their delicately structured colonies can be exceedingly attractive, as indicated by their sometimes-used common name of “lace animals”.

As a follow-on from Susannah’s post, I just thought I’d present you with one of the more unusual and eye-catching types of bryozoan. Modern lunulitiform bryozoans belong to three families, Lunulitidae, Selenariidae and Cupuladriidae. Unlike other bryozoans, lunulitiforms colonies are not anchored to their substrate, but lie unattached on the surface of the sediment. While free-living bryozoan colonies sometimes grew quite large during the Palaeozoic, the rise of a well-developed infauna (burrowing animal assemblage) and the resulting bioturbation rather did it in for the large forms, and modern lunulitiforms are small, only about a centimetre and a half across at most. They are disc-shaped and raised in the centre, so they look not unlike a Southeast Asian fieldworker’s hat, with the zooids all emerging on the outer surface. As shown in the picture above, lunulitiform colonies are generally highly integrated, with zooids growing in a strict radial pattern.

Colonies of Selenaria maculata, photographed by P. L. Cook.

So highly integrated are these colonies, in fact, that some are able to move as if they were a single organism, as shown in the photo above. The zooids around the edge of the colony develop exceeding long setiform avicularia (to find out what an avicularium is, read Susannah’s post) that the colony can use like legs to walk on. Selenaria maculata colonies can reach speeds of about one metre per hour, which may not sound particularly fast until you consider that most bryozoan colonies don’t move at all.

Systematics of Cheilostomata
<==Cheilostomata [Cribrimorpha, Cribrimorphina, Hincksinidae]
    |--Ascophora [Ascophorina]T93
    |    |  i. s.: Euthyroides Harmer 1903 [Euthyroididae]T93
    |    |           `--E. episcopalisR79
    |    |         Platyglena [Platyglenidae]T93
    |    |           |--P. altonensis (Brydone 1930)T93
    |    |           |--P. culveriana (Brydone 1930)T93
    |    |           `--P. ocellata Marsson 1887T93
    |    |         BifaxariidaeT93
    |    |         Ditaxiporina [Ditaxiporinidae]T93
    |    |           |--D. bifenestrata Cheetham 1963T93
    |    |           `--D. labiatum Canu 1910T93
    |    |         Eurystomella Levinsen 1909 [Eurystomellidae]T93
    |    |           `--E. foraminigera (Hincks 1883)T93
    |    |         PetalostegidaeT93
    |    |           |--Petalostegus tenuis (Maplestone 1899)T93
    |    |           `--Chelidozoum vespertilio (MacGillivray 1895)T93
    |    |         Diplotresis [Tremoschizodinidae]T93
    |    |           `--D. europaea Berthelsen 1962T93
    |    |         Dittosaria [Pasytheidae]T93
    |    |           `--D. wetherillii Busk 1866T93
    |    |         Actisecos Canu & Bassler 1927 [Actisecidae]T93
    |    |         Umbonula [Umbonulidae]T93
    |    |           |--U. calcariformis Gregory 1893T93
    |    |           |--U. leda (d’Orbigny 1851)T93
    |    |           |--U. reticulataH04
    |    |           `--U. verrucosaH04
    |    |         Metrarabdotos [Metrarabdotosidae]T93
    |    |           |--M. micropora (Gabb & Horn 1862)GE93, T93
    |    |           `--+--M. chipolanumGE93
    |    |              `--+--+--M. colligatumGE93
    |    |                 |  `--+--M. auriculatumGE93
    |    |                 |     `--M. tenueGE93
    |    |                 `--+--M. kugleriGE93
    |    |                    `--+--M. lacrymosumGE93
    |    |                       `--M. unguiculatumGE93
    |    |         SclerodomidaeT93
    |    |           |--Cellarinella njegovanae Rogick 1956T93
    |    |           `--PorellaT93
    |    |                |--P. cervicornisPP64
    |    |                |--P. concinnaPP64
    |    |                `--P. operculata Canu & Bassler 1935T93
    |    |         Dhondtiscus Gordon 1989 [Dhondtiscidae]T93
    |    |         Hincksipora [Hincksiporidae]T93
    |    |           `--H. spinulifera (Hincks 1889)T93
    |    |         Pseudolepralia [Pseudolepraliidae]T93
    |    |           `--P. ellisinae Silén 1942T93
    |    |         Chidoniopsis Harmer 1957 [Chlidoniopsidae]T93
    |    |         Quadriscutella [Euthyrisellidae]T93
    |    |           |--Q. burlingtoniensis (Waters 1882)T93
    |    |           `--Q. punctataT93
    |    |         Porina [Porinidae, Spinoporinidae]T93
    |    |           `--P. aftonensis Brydone 1930T93
    |    |         Nephropora [Nephroporidae]T93
    |    |           `--N. elegans Marsson 1887T93
    |    |         Taenioporella [Stomachetosellidae]T93
    |    |           `--T. articulata (Voigt 1930)T93
    |    |         Cianotremella [Cheiloporinidae]T93
    |    |           `--C. gigantea Canu 1911T93
    |    |         MargarettidaeT93
    |    |           |--Margaretta ceroeidesBBB-S95
    |    |           `--Tubucella contorta (Canu 1910)T93
    |    |         Tetraplaria [Tetraplariidae]T93
    |    |           `--T. turgida Tewari & Srivastava 1967T93
    |    |         Cyclicopora [Cyclicoporidae]T93
    |    |           |--C. fissurata Canu & Bassler 1920T93
    |    |           `--C. laticella Canu & Bassler 1920T93
    |    |         Taenioporina arachnoides (Goldfuss 1826)T93
    |    |         Cheilohorneropsis [Cheilohorneropsidae]T93
    |    |           `--C. roveretana Annoscia et al. 1984T93
    |    |         Semihaswellia Canu & Bassler 1917T93
    |    |         Tremotoichos Canu & Bassler 1917T93
    |    |         Adeonella [Adeonellidae]T93
    |    |           |--A. calvetiPP64
    |    |           `--A. syringopora (Reuss 1848)T93
    |    |         MyriaporidaeT93
    |    |           |--MyrioporaT93
    |    |           `--Glauconome Goldfuss 1826W77
    |    |                |--G. nereidis White 1874W77
    |    |                `--G. triliniataW77
    |    |         Tubitrabecularia [Siphonicytaridae]T93
    |    |           `--T. clypeata (Waters 1881)T93
    |    |         Inversiula Jullien 1888 [Inversiulidae]T93
    |    |           |--I. airensis Maplestone 1910T93
    |    |           `--I. quadricornis Maplestone 1910T93
    |    |         Cryptosula [Cryptosulidae]T93
    |    |           |--C. pallasiana (Moll 1803)HJ08
    |    |           `--C. zavjalovensisKBC03
    |    |         Petralia MacGillivray 1869 [Petraliidae]T93
    |    |         Mawatarius Gordon 1990 [Mawatariidae]T93
    |    |         Vix Gordon 1988 [Vicidae]T93
    |    |         EminooeciidaeT93
    |    |         CalwelliidaeT93
    |    |         Didymosella [Didymosellidae]T93
    |    |         Prostomaria [Prostomariidae]T93
    |    |           `--P. gibbericollis MacGillivray 1895T93
    |    |         UrceoliporidaeT93
    |    |         Dysnoetopora [Dysnoetoporidae]T93
    |    |           |--D. celleporoides Canu & Bassler 1926T93
    |    |           `--D. demissa (White 1879)T93
    |    |         KleidionellidaeT93
    |    |           |--Hoplocheilina osculifera (Reuss 1872)T93
    |    |           `--Kleidionella verrucosa Canu & Bassler 1920T93
    |    |         Hippoporidra [Hippoporidridae]T93
    |    |           |--H. edax (Busk 1859)T93
    |    |           `--H. senegambiensisC79
    |    |         OrbituliporidaeT93
    |    |           |--Atactoporidra globata Labracherie 1961T93
    |    |           `--Batopora stoliczkai Reuss 1867T93
    |    |         Conoscharellinopsis [Conoscharellinidae]T93
    |    |           `--C. vigneauxi Labracherie 1975T93
    |    |         Lekythopora [Lekythoporidae]T93
    |    |           `--L. hystrix MacGillivray 1883T93
    |    |         ArachnopusioideaT93
    |    |         MamilloporoideaT93
    |    |         CelleporoideaTHG01
    |    |           |--PhidoloporidaeTHG01
    |    |           `--CelleporidaeT93
    |    |         HippothoideaR79
    |    |           |--HippothoidaeT93
    |    |           `--Chorizopora Hincks 1879 [Chorizoporidae]THG01
    |    |                `--*C. brongniartii (Audouin 1826) [=Flustra brongniartii; incl. Berenicea annulata]THG01
    |    |         LepralielloideaTHG01
    |    |           |--LepraliellidaeT93
    |    |           `--Romancheinidae [Escharellidae, Exochellidae]THG01
    |    |                |--BalantiostomaJB12
    |    |                |--Escharella immiscaBo79
    |    |                `--Escharoides Milne Edwards 1836THG01
    |    |                     |--*E. coccinea (Abildgaard 1806) [=Cellepora coccinea]THG01
    |    |                     `--E. longirostris Dumont 1981THG01
    |    |         CatenicelloideaT93
    |    |         Adeonidae [Adeonoidea]THG01
    |    |           |--BracebridgiaT93
    |    |           |--Adeonellopsis [Adeonellopsidae]T93
    |    |           |    `--A. wetherelli Gregory 1893T93
    |    |           `--Reptadeonella Busk 1884 [Adeonidae, Adeonoidea]THG01
    |    |                |--*R. violacea (Johnston 1847) [=Lepralia violacea]THG01
    |    |                |--R. cellulanus Tilbrook, Hayward & Gordon 2001THG01
    |    |                |--R. fissa (Hincks 1880) (see below for synonymy)THG01
    |    |                |--R. levinseni (Borg 1940)THG01
    |    |                `--R. novissima Tilbrook, Hayward & Gordon 2001THG01
    |    |         SmittinoideaTHG01
    |    |           |--SmittinidaeT93
    |    |           |--BitectiporidaeTHG01
    |    |           |    |--Bitectipora lineata MacGillivray 1895T93
    |    |           |    `--Metroperiella Canu & Bassler 1917THG01
    |    |           |         |--*M. lepralioides (Calvet in Jullien & Calvet 1903) [=Schizoporella lepralioides]THG01
    |    |           |         `--M. montferrandii (Audouin 1826) [=Flustra montferrandii, Codonellina montferrandii]THG01
    |    |           |--Watersipora Neviani 1895 [Watersiporidae]THG01
    |    |           |    |--W. arcuata Banta 1969HJ08
    |    |           |    |--W. cucullataBu79
    |    |           |    |--W. nigraR79
    |    |           |    |--W. subovoidea [=Dakaria subovoidea]THG01
    |    |           |    `--W. subtorquata (d’Orbigny 1852)HJ08
    |    |           `--Teuchoporidae [Phylactellidae]THG01
    |    |                |--Osthimosia Jullien 1888THG01
    |    |                |--LagenicellaTHG01
    |    |                |--Perigastrella exserta (Gabb & Horn 1862)T93
    |    |                `--Torquatella Tilbrook, Hayward & Gordon 2001THG01
    |    |                     |--*T. duolamellata (Scholz 1991) [=Osthimosia duolamellata]THG01
    |    |                     |--‘Reptescharellina’ cornuta Gabb & Horn 1862THG01
    |    |                     `--‘Schizoporella’ dissimilis Osburn 1952THG01
    |    |         Fenestrulina Jullien 1888LL99
    |    |           `--F. malusiiKBC03
    |    `--LepraliomorphaLL99
    `--Anasca [Anascina]T93
         |  i. s.: Scruparia [Scrupariidae]T93
         |           |--S. loriculata [=Cellaria (Scruparia) loriculata]G20
         |           `--S. reptans [=Cellaria (Scruparia) reptans]G20
         |         EucrateidaeT93
         |         LabiostomellidaeT93
         |         Tendra Nordman 1839 [Tendridae]T93
         |         FusicellariidaeT93
         |           |--Fusicellaria pulchella d’Orbigny 1851T93
         |           `--Encicellaria hofkeri Keij 1969T93
         |         BicorniferidaeT93
         |           |--Bicornifera Lindenberg 1965H75
         |           |    `--*B. alpina Lindenberg 1965H75
         |           `--Bifissurinella [Bicorniferidae]T93
         |                `--B. triangularis Poignang & Ubaldo 1974T93
         |         SkyloniidaeT93
         |           |--Calvina kalloensis Willems 1972T93
         |           `--Skylonia Thomas 1961H75
         |                `--*S. mirabilis Thomas 1961H75
         |         FlustridaeT93
         |         ChaperiidaeT93
         |           |--Patsyella tongensis Gordon 1982CB01
         |           |--Hagenowinella vaginata (von Hagenow 1851)T93
         |           |--Catenariopsis morningtoniensis Maplestone 1899T93
         |           `--Chaperia granulosaPG98
         |         Hiantopora [Hiantoporidae]T93
         |           `--H. tripora Canu 1911T93
         |         Cupuladriidae [Discoporellidae]T93
         |           |--Discoporella d’Orbigny 1852H15
         |           |    |--D. radiata [=Lunulites radiata]F91
         |           |    `--D. umbellata [=Lunulites umbellata]H15
         |           `--CupuladriaT93
         |                |--C. biporosaR79
         |                `--C. ovalis Gorodiski & Balavoine 1962T93
         |         Poricellaria [Poricellariidae]T93
         |         PseudoporicellariidaeT93
         |         Selenariidae [Lunulitidae]T93
         |           |--Selenaria maculataR97
         |           `--LunulitesT93
         |                |--L. capulusR97
         |                |--L. pineaR26
         |                `--L. plana d’Orbigny 1852T93
         |         CoscinopleuridaeT93
         |           |--Acoscinopleura vindocinensis (Filliozat 1908)T93
         |           `--Coscinopleura digitata (Morton 1834)T93
         |         Macropora [Macroporidae]T93
         |           `--M. aquia Canu & Bassler 1920T93
         |         SetosellidaeT93
         |           |--Setosinella prolifica Canu & Bassler 1933T93
         |           `--Setosella vulnerataN79
         |         Setosellina [Setosellinidae]T93
         |           `--S. houzeaui (Meunier & Pergens 1886)T93
         |         Cothurnicella [Chlidioniidae, Cothurnicellidae]T93
         |         AlysidiidaeT93
         |         AspidostomatidaeT93
         |           |--Aspidostoma giganteumC79
         |           `--Euritina eurita (d’Orbigny 1851)T93
         |         CabereidaeT93
         |           |--Caberea boryiGD00
         |           `--Eoscrupocellaria cretae (Marsson 1887)T93
         |         EuoplozoidaeT93
         |         FarciminariaH04 [FarciminariidaeT93]
         |           `--F. aculeataH04
         |         BicellariellaR79 [BicellariellidaeT93]
         |           `--B. ciliataR79
         |         DesmacystidaeT93
         |         OtoporidaeT93
         |           |--Anaptopora disjuncta Lang 1916T93
         |           |--Anotopora inaurita Lang 1916T93
         |           `--Otopora auricula Lang 1916T93
         |         Ctenopora [Ctenoporidae]T93
         |           `--C. pecten Lang 1916T93
         |         AndrioporidaeT93
         |           |--Kankopora kankensis Lang 1916T93
         |           `--Auchenopora guttur Lang 1916T93
         |         CalpidoporidaeT93
         |           |--Calpidopora diota Lang 1916T93
         |           `--Graptopora scripta Lang 1916T93
         |         Thoracopora [Thoracoporidae]T93
         |           |--T. costata Lang 1916T93
         |           `--T. monastica (Brydone 1909)T93
         |         LagynoporidaeT93
         |           |--Lagynopora pediculus (Reuss 1874)T93
         |           `--LeptocheiloporaT93
         |                |--L. magna Lang 1916T93
         |                |--L. regularis (d’Orbigny 1851)T93
         |                |--L. tenuilabrosaR79
         |                `--L. vulnerata (Brydone 1914)T93
         |         PelmatoporidaeT93
         |           |--PelmatoporaJB12
         |           `--Sandalopora gallica Lang 1916T93
         |         Taractopora [Taractoporidae]T93
         |           |--T. confusa Lang 1916T93
         |           `--T. ernsti Voigt & Schneemilch 1986T93
         |         DisheloporidaeT93
         |           |--Hystricopora horrida Lang 1916T93
         |           `--Dishelopora claviceps (Brydone 1910)T93
         |         RhacheoporidaeT93
         |           |--Rhacheopora larvalis Lang 1916T93
         |           `--Geisopora protecta Lang 1916T93
         |--CribrilinidaeT93
         |--MembraniporoideaTHG01
         |    |--MembraniporidaeT93
         |    `--ElectridaeTHG01
         |--BuguloideaTHG01
         |    |--BugulidaeT93
         |    |--BeaniidaeTHG01
         |    |--CandidaeTHG01
         |    `--Synnotum Pieper 1881 [Epistomiidae]THG01
         |         `--*S. aegyptiacum (Audouin 1826) [=Loricaria aegyptiaca; incl. Gemellaria avicularis Pieper 1881]THG01
         |--Aetea Lamouroux 1812 [Aeteidae, Aeteoidea]THG01
         |    |--*A. anguina (Linnaeus 1758) [=Sertularia anguina]THG01
         |    |--A. australis Gordon 1984THG01
         |    |--A. ligulata Busk 1852THG01
         |    |--A. rectaPP64
         |    |--A. sica (Couch 1844)THG01
         |    `--A. truncata (Landsborough 1852)T93
         |--Cellariidae [Cellarioidea]THG01
         |    |--MeliceritesJB12
         |    |--Escharicellaria polymorpha Voigt 1924T93
         |    `--Cellaria Ellis & Solander 1786THG01
         |         |--C. cereoidesR26
         |         |--C. (Falcaria) cornutaG20
         |         |--C. punctata (Busk 1852) [=Salicornia punctata; incl. S. gracilis Busk 1852]THG01
         |         `--C. (Cellaria) salicorniaG20
         |--CalloporoideaTHG01
         |    |--CalloporidaeT93
         |    |--QuadricellariidaeTHG01
         |    |    |--Cellarinidra clavata (d’Orbigny 1851)T93
         |    |    |--QuadricellariaT93
         |    |    |    |--Q. gracilis [incl. Onchopora borealis]A64
         |    |    |    `--Q. oblonga d’Orbigny 1851T93
         |    |    `--Nellia Busk 1852THG01
         |    |         |--*N. oculata Busk 1852THG01
         |    |         |--N. tenellaCB01
         |    |         `--N. tenuis Harmer 1926THG01
         |    `--AntroporidaeTHG01
         |         |--Parantropora Tilbrook 1998THG01
         |         |    `--*P. penelope Tilbrook 1998THG01
         |         |--Antropora Norman 1903THG01
         |         |    |--*A. granulifera (Hincks 1880) [=Membranipora granulifera]THG01
         |         |    `--A. minor (Hincks 1880) [=Membranipora trifolium var. minor, A. minus (l. c.)]THG01
         |         `--AplousinaCB01
         |              |--*A. giganteaCB01
         |              `--A. disjuncta (Gabb & Horn 1862) (see below for synonymy)CB01
         `--MicroporoideaTHG01
              |--ThalamoporellidaeTHG01
              |--Stichomicropora [Microporidae]T93
              |    |--S. membranaceaH75
              |    `--S. oceani (d’Orbigny 1852)T93
              |--Monoporella Hincks 1881 [Monoporellidae]THG01
              |    |--*M. nodulifera (Hincks 1881) (see below for synonymy)THG01
              |    `--M. exsculpta (Marsson 1887)T93
              |--Steginoporella Smitt 1873 [Steginoporellidae]THG01
              |    |--*S. magnilabris (Busk 1854) [=Membranipora magnilabris]THG01
              |    |--S. buskii Harmer 1900THG01
              |    |--S. cylindrica Ziko 1985T93
              |    |--S. delicata Ziko 1985T93
              |    |--S. jellyae Tilbrook, Hayward & Gordon 2001THG01
              |    |--S. lateralis MacGillivray 1895 [=Steganoporella (l. c.) lateralis]THG01
              |    `--S. obtusa Ziko 1985T93
              `--OnychocellidaeTHG01
                   |--CheethamiaJB12
                   |--Floridinella Canu & Bassler 1917THG01
                   |    `--*F. vicksburgicaCB01
                   |--OnychocellaCB01
                   |    |--O. cyclostomaM79
                   |    `--O. inarmata Canu & Bassler 1929CB01
                   `--Smittipora Jullien 1882THG01
                        |--*S. abyssicola (Smitt 1873) [=Vincularia abyssicola]THG01
                        `--S. cordiformis Harmer 1926THG01
Cheilostomata incertae sedis:
  OgivalinaCB01
    |--*O. eximopora Canu & Bassler 1917CB01
    `--O. dimorphaCB01
  RimosocellaCB01
  MolliaCB01
    |--*M. patellaria [=Amphiblestrum patellarium]CB01
    |--M. multijuncta Waters 1879CB01
    `--M. rossellii Ryland & Hayward 1977CB01
  CalescharidaeCB01
  Membrendoecium lagunculumTHG01
  CleidochasmatidaeTHG01
    |--Yrbozoon Gordon 1989THG01
    |--Anchicleidochasma Soule, Soule & Chaney 1991THG01
    |--Calyptooecia Winston 1984THG01
    |--Fedorella Silén 1947THG01
    `--Characodoma Maplestone 1900THG01
         `--C. glabra Gordon & d’Hondt 1997THG01
  Gephyrophora Busk 1884THG01
  Hippoporella Canu 1917THG01
    `--*H. hippopus (Smitt 1873) [=Lepralia hippopus]THG01
  Stephanollona Duvergier 1921 [incl. Brodiella Uttley & Bullivant 1972]THG01
    |--*S. spinifera Duvergier 1921THG01
    `--‘Hippoporella’ labiata Hayward & Cook 1983THG01
  Tropidozoum cellariiformeC79
  Doryporella alcicornisC79
  Catenaria parasitica [=Alysidium parasiticum]R79
  Membraniporella aragoniR79, KBC03
  Euthyris obtectaH15
  Cupularia stellataH04
  SmittiaH04
    |--S. landsboroviiH04
    `--S. reticulataH04
  DiachorisH04
    |--D. crotaliH04
    `--D. magellanicaH04
  Lekythoglena ampullaceaSH12
  Danocella haakanssoniSH12
  TriporulaR79
  Chaperiopsis (Chaperiopsis) cristataPG98
  OtionellaPG98
    |--O. affinisPG98
    `--O. squamosaPG98
  Melicerita ejuncidaPG98
  Riscodopa cotylaPG98
  Schizosmittina bicornisPG98
  Celleporina conescharellinoidesPG98
  Galeopsis mimicusPG98
  Lagenipora ferocissimaPG98
  Conescharellina anguloporaPG98
  Mucronella Hincks 1880 non Fr. 1874 (ICBN)LL99

Aplousina disjuncta (Gabb & Horn 1862) [=Biflustra disjuncta; incl. Membranipora perampla Gabb & Horn 1862]CB01

*Monoporella nodulifera (Hincks 1881) [=Haploporella nodulifera; incl. M. fimbriata carinifera Canu & Bassler 1929]THG01

Reptadeonella fissa (Hincks 1880) [=Microporella fissa; incl. Adeona joloensis Bassler 1936, Reptadeonella joloensis, A. porosa Canu & Bassler 1929]THG01

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A64] Alder, J. 1864. Descriptions of new British Polyzoa, with remarks on some imperfectly known species. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33 (Notices and Abstracts): 97–98.

[Bo79] Bosence, D. W. J. 1979. The factors leading to aggregation and reef formation in Serpula vermicularis L. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 299–318. Academic Press: London.

[BBB-S95] Boubezari, K., G. Bitar & D. Bellan-Santini. 1995. Structure et organisation de trois moulières (Mytilus galloprovincialis et Perna perna) de la région d’Alger. Mésogée 54: 63–72.

[Bu79] Buss, L. W. 1979. Habitat selection, directional growth and spatial refuges: why colonial animals have more hiding places. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 459–497. Academic Press: London.

[C79] Cook, P. L. 1979. Some problems in interpretation of heteromorphy and colony integration in Bryozoa. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 193–210. Academic Press: London.

[CB01] Cook, P. L., & P. E. Bock. 2001. Calescharidae, a new family for the Tertiary to Recent genera Caleschara MacGillivray and Tretosina Canu & Bassler (Bryozoa: Cheilostomata). Invertebrate Taxonomy 15: 527–550.

[F91] Freess, W. B. 1991. Beiträge zur Kenntnis von Fauna und Flora des marinen Mitteloligozäns bei Leipzig. Altenburger Naturwissenschaftliche Forschungen 6: 3–74.

[GD00] Giribet, G., D. L. Distel, M. Polz, W. Sterrer & W. C. Wheeler. 2000. Triploblastic relationships with emphasis on the acoelomates and the position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Plathelminthes, and Chaetognatha: a combined approach of 18S rDNA sequences and morphology. Systematic Biology 49: 539–562.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE93] Gould, S. J., & N. Eldredge. 1993. Punctuated equilibrium comes of age. Nature 366: 223–227.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[H75] Häntzschel, W. 1975. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea Suppl. 1. Trace Fossils and Problematica 2nd ed. The Geological Society of America: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[H15] Harmer, S. F. 1915. The Polyzoa of the Siboga Expedition—Part I. Entoprocta, Ctenostomata and Cyclostomata. E. J. Brill: Leyden.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1–44.

[JB12] Johnson, M. E., & B. G. Baarli. 2012. Development of intertidal biotas through Phanerozoic time. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 63–128. Springer.

[KBC03] Kashin, I. A., E. V. Bagaveeva & S. F. Chaplygina. 2003. Fouling communities of hydrotechnical constructions in Nakhodka Bay (Sea of Japan). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29: 267–283.

[LL99] Liu X.-X. & Liu H.-L. 1999. Systematic position of Mucronella perforata Okada et Mawatari 1937. Chinese Journal of Oceanology & Limnology 17: 338–342.

[M79] Müller, A. H. 1979. Fossilization (taphonomy). In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A2–A78. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[PG98] Probert, P. K., & S. L. Grove. 1998. Macrobenthic assemblages of the continental shelf and upper slope off the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 28: 259–280.

[R97] Richardson, J. R. 1997. Ecology of articulated brachiopods. In: Kaesler, R. L. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda, Revised vol. 1. Introduction pp. 441–462. The Geological Society of America: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[R79] Ryland, J. S. 1979. Structural and physiological aspects of coloniality in bryozoans. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 211–242. Academic Press: London.

[SH12] Stilwell, J. D., & E. Håkansson. 2012. Survival, but…! New tales of ‘dead clade walking’ from Austral and Boreal post-K–T assemblages. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 795–810. Springer.

[T93] Taylor, P. D. 1993. Bryozoa. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 465–489. Chapman & Hall: London.

[THG01] Tilbrook, K. J., P. J. Hayward & D. P. Gordon. 2001. Cheilostomatous Bryozoa from Vanuatu. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 131: 35–109.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 1–21.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *