Frenelopsis hoheneggeri, from the Peabody Museum of Natural History.

Belongs within: Coniferophyta.

The Cheirolepidiaceae are a group of fossil conifers known from the Mesozoic. They are characterised by a distinct pollen type (assigned to the form genus Classopollis) with a complex, tectate-columellate wall structure (Axsmith et al. 2004). Shoots were often opposite-decussate or spiral, and leaves (which may be dimorphic) were typically reduced or scale-like, and imbricate (Pole 2000).

<==Cheirolepidiaceae [Frenelopsidaceae]
    |--Alvinia bohemicaAKW04
    |--Tomaxellia biformeP00
    |--Otwayia Pole 2000P00
    |    |--*O. tetragona (Cantrill & Douglas) Pole 2000 [=Geinitzea tetragona Cantrill & Douglas 1988]P00
    |    `--O. cudgeloides Pole 2000P00
    |--Classostrobus Alvin, Spicer & Watson 1978AKW04 [incl. PseudofrenelopsisAKW04, SuturovaginaGM-C02]
    |    |--*C. comptonensis Alvin, Spicer & Watson 1994AKW04 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--C. arkansensis Axsmith, Krings & Waselkov 2004AKW04
    |    |--C. cathayanus [incl. Pseudofrenelopsis intermedia]AKW04
    |    |--C. turolensis Gomez, Martín-Closas et al. 2002GM-C02
    |    `--C. ugnaensis Gomez, Martín-Closas et al. 2002GM-C02
    |--Classopollis Pflug 1953AKW04
    |    |--*C. classoides Pflug 1953GM-C02
    |    |--C. brasiliensis Herngreen 1975I02
    |    |--C. mirabilis Reyre 1970GM-C02
    |    |--C. noeli Reyre 1970GM-C02
    |    `--C. obidosensis Groot & Groot 1962GM-C02
    |--Cupressinocladus Seward 1919AKW04 [incl. WatsoniocladusGM-C02]
    |    |--C. asferensis Barale & Ouaja 2002BO02
    |    |--C. interruptus (Newberry) Schweitzer 1974C93
    |    |--C. itieri (Saporta) Barale 1981BO02
    |    |--C. leptocladoides (Berry) Pons 1990BO02
    |    |--C. micromerum (Heer) Pais 1974BO02
    |    |--C. pompeckji (Salfeld) Pons 1990BO02
    |    |--C. pseudoexpansum Barnard & Miller 1976BO02
    |    |--C. ramonensis Chaloner & Lorch 1960 (see below for synonymy)K-CB01
    |    `--C. soltanensis Barale, Ouaja & Philippe 2000BO02
    |--Pagiophyllum ramonensis (Lorch) van Konijnenburg-van Cittert & Bandel 2001SJ12, K-CB01 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--B. graciliformeBO02
    |    |--B. hegewaldia Ash 1973C93
    |    |--B. lorchii Raab et al. 1986K=CB01
    |    |--B. mamillareK-CB01
    |    |--B. negevensis Lorch 1968K-CB01
    |    |--B. pulcher Lorch 1968K-CB01
    |    `--B. speciosaBO02
    |--Hirmeriella [Hirmerellaceae]K-CB01
    |    |--*H. muensteri (Schenk) Jung 1968K-CB01, S05
    |    `--H. airelensis Muir & van Konijnenburg-van Cittert 1970C93
    `--Frenelopsis Schenck 1869AKW04, GM-C02
         |--*F. hoheneggeri (Ettingshausen) Schenck 1869 [=Thuites hoheneggeri Ettinghausen 1852]GM-C02
         |--F. alata Feistmantel 1881AKW04
         |--F. choshiensisGM-C02
         |--F. elegansGM-C02
         |--F. harrisii Doludenko & Reymanówna 1978GT02
         |--F. kaneviensis Barale & Doludenko 1985GM-C02
         |--F. occidentalisGM-C02
         |--F. oligostomata Romariz 1946C93 [incl. Classoidites glandisGM-C02]
         |--F. pombetsuensis Saiki 1997GM-C02
         |--F. ramosissimaGM-C02
         |--F. rubiesensis Barale 1973GM-C02
         |--F. sifloana Watson 1983GM-C02
         |--F. teixeiraeGM-C02
         |--F. turolensis Gomez, Martín-Closas et al. 2002GM-C02
         |--F. ugnaensis Gomez, Martín-Closas et al. 2002GM-C02
         `--F. veneta Gomez, Thévenard et al. 2002GT02

*Classostrobus comptonensis Alvin, Spicer & Watson 1994AKW04 [incl. Classopollis martinottiiGM-C02, Pseudofrenelopsis parceramosa (Fontaine) Watson 1977AKW04]

Cupressinocladus ramonensis Chaloner & Lorch 1960 [=Watsoniocladus ramonensis (Chaloner & Lorch) Srinavasan 1995; incl. Masculostrobus harrisianus Lorch 1968, Classostrobus harrisianus (Lorch) Alvin et al. 1978]K-CB01

Pagiophyllum ramonensis (Lorch) van Konijnenburg-van Cittert & Bandel 2001SJ12, K-CB01 [=Elatocladus ramonensis Lorch 1967K-CB01]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AKW04] Axsmith, B. J., M. Krings & K. Waselkov. 2004. Conifer pollen cones from the Cretaceous of Arkansas: implications for diversity and reproduction in the Cheirolepidiaceae. Journal of Paleontology 78: 402–409.

[BO02] Barale, G., & M. Ouaja. 2002. La biodiversité végétale des gisements d’âge Jurassique supérieur-Crétacé inférieur de Merbah El Asfer (Sud-Tunisien). Cretaceous Research 23: 707–737.

[C93] Cleal, C. J. 1993. Gymnospermophyta. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 795–808. Chapman & Hall: London.

[GM-C02] Gomez, B., C. Martín-Closas, G. Barale, N. Solé de Porta, F. Thévenard & G. Guignard. 2002. Frenelopsis (Coniferales: Cheirolepidiaceae) and related male organ genera from the Lower Cretaceous of Spain. Palaeontology 45 (5): 997–1036.

[GT02] Gomez, B., F. Thévenard, M. Fantin & L. Guisberti. 2002. Late Cretaceous plants from the Bonarelli Level of the Venetian Alps, northeastern Italy. Cretaceous Research 23: 671–685.

[I02] Ibrahim, M. I. A. 2002. Late Albian-Middle Cenomanian palynofacies and palynostratigraphy, Abu Gharadig-5 well, Western Desert, Egypt. Cretaceous Research 23: 775–788.

[K-CB01] Konijnenburg-van Cittert, H. van, & K. Bandel. 2001. Jurassic plants from Djebel Tih, Sinai. Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch-Paläontologischen Institut der Universität Hamburg 85: 47–64.

[P00] Pole, M. S. 2000. Mid-Cretaceous conifers from the Eromanga Basin, Australia. Australian Systematic Botany 13 (2): 153–197.

[S05] Säilä, L. K. 2005. A new species of the sphenodontian reptile Clevosaurus from the Lower Jurassic of south Wales. Palaeontology 48 (4): 817–831.

[SJ12] Schmidt, A. R., S. Jancke, E. E. Lindquist, E. Ragazzi, G. Roghi, P. C. Nascimbene, K. Schmidt, T. Wappler & D. A. Grimaldi. 2012. Arthropods in amber from the Triassic period. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (37): 14796–14801.

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