Ktenoura retrospinosa, copyright Captmondo.

Belongs within: Phacopida.
Contains: Cheirurus, Pilletopeltis, Crotalocephalina, Ceraurinella, Deiphoninae, Ceraurus, Xylabion, Hadromeros.

The Cheirurinae are a group of trilobites known from the Lower Ordovician to the Middle Devonian. Members of this group were probably benthic crawlers, living on muddy or sandy substrates (Přibyl et al. 1985).

Characters (from Přibyl et al. 1985): Exoskeleton with outstanding surface granulation, varying with granularity of their substrate. Post-ocular ridges reduced; paired glabellar furrows 3S and 2S often merging to form united transglabellar furrows. Thoracic pleurae with two basic pleural bands fused into one band without pleural furrow; auxillary bands developed along anterior and posterior edges of pleurae. Pygidium with four spines.

    |--+--Chiozoon Lane 1972PVP85
    |  |    |--*C. cowiei Lane 1972PVP85
    |  |    |--C. longiaxatus (Weber 1951)PVP85
    |  |    `--C. umisk Norford 1981PVP85
    |  `--+--CheirurusPVP85
    |     |--PilletopeltisPVP85
    |     |--CrotalocephalinaPVP85
    |     |--Anasobella Campbell 1967PVP85
    |     |    `--*A. asper Campbell 1967PVP85
    |     |--Pseudocheirurus Prantl & Přibyl 1947PVP85
    |     |    `--*P. beyrichi (Barrande 1846)PVP85
    |     |         |--P. b. beyrichiPVP85
    |     |         `--‘Chirurus’ beyrichi kasachstanicus Maksimova 1975PVP85
    |     `--+--Radiurus Ramsköld 1983PVP85
    |        |    |--*R. phlogoideus Ramsköld 1983PVP85
    |        |    |--R. avalanchensis Chatterton & Perry 1984PVP85
    |        |    `--R. estonicus (Männil 1958) [=Cheirurus estonicus]PVP85
    |        `--Didrepanon Lane 1971PVP85
    |             |--*D. falcatum Lane 1971PVP85
    |             |--D. bimucronatum (Murchison 1839)PVP85
    |             |--D. delormensis Chatterton & Perry 1984PVP85
    |             |--D. gutnicum Ramsköld 1983PVP85
    |             |--D. praecursor (Frech 1888)PVP85
    |             |--D. speciosum (Hisinger 1837)PVP85
    |             `--D. squarrosum (Zenker 1833)PVP85
    |--+--Laneites Přibyl & Vaněk in Přibyl, Vaněk & Pek 1985PVP85
    |  |    |--*L. polydorus (Billings 1865) [=Ceraurus polydorus]PVP85
    |  |    `--L. ingricus (Schmidt 1881)PVP85
    |  |--Cerauropeltis Přibyl & Vaněk in Přibyl, Vaněk & Pek 1985PVP85
    |  |    |--*C. ruedemanni (Raymond 1916) [=Ceraurus ruedemanni, Paraceraurus ruedemanni]PVP85
    |  |    |--C. borealica (Balashova 1959)PVP85
    |  |    `--C. breviceps (Cooper 1953)PVP85
    |  `--+--CeraurinellaPVP85
    |     |--DeiphoninaePVP85
    |     |--Ceraurinium Přibyl & Vaněk in Přibyl, Vaněk & Pek 1985PVP85
    |     |    |--*C. intermedium (Kielan 1955) [=Ceraurus intermedius]PVP85
    |     |    |--C. glabrum (Angelin 1854)PVP85
    |     |    `--C. latifrons (Warburg 1925)PVP85
    |     |--Gabriceraurus Přibyl & Vaněk in Přibyl, Vaněk & Pek 1985PVP85
    |     |    |--*G. gabrielsi (Ludvigsen 1979) [=Ceraurus gabrielsi]PVP85
    |     |    |--G. blussoni (Ludvigsen 1979)PVP85
    |     |    |--G. dentatus (Raymond & Barton 1913)PVP85
    |     |    |--G. hirsuitus (Ludvigsen 1979)PVP85
    |     |    |--G. hudsoni (Raymond 1905)PVP85
    |     |    `--G. proicens (Tripp 1967)PVP85
    |     `--+--CeraurusPVP85
    |        |--Whittakerites Ludvigsen 1976PVP85
    |        |    `--*W. planatus Ludvigsen 1976PVP85
    |        |--Hapsiceraurus Whittington 1954PVP85
    |        |    `--*H. hispidus Whittington 1954PVP85
    |        `--Borealaspis Ludvigsen 1976PVP85
    |             |--B. (Borealaspis)PVP85
    |             |    |--*B. (B.) whittakerensis Ludvigsen 1976PVP85
    |             |    `--B. (B.) numitor (Billings 1866)PVP85
    |             `--B. (Alreboaspis Přibyl & Vaněk in Přibyl, Vaněk & Pek 1985)PVP85
    |                  |--B. (*A.) biformis Ludvigsen 1976PVP85
    |                  |--B. (A.) binodosa (Cooper & Kindle 1936)PVP85
    |                  |--B. (A.) bispinosa (Raymond & Barton 1913)PVP85
    |                  |--B. (A.) bituberculata (Troedsson 1929)PVP85
    |                  `--B. (A.) maewestoides (Ludvigsen 1979)PVP85
    `--+--Sycophantia Fortey 1980PVP85
       |    `--*S. seminosa Fortey 1980PVP85
       `--+--Osekaspis Prantl & Přibyl 1947PVP85
          |    `--*O. comes (Barrande 1872)PVP85
          |--Paraceraurus Männil 1958PVP85
          |    |--*P. aculeatus (Eichwald 1860)PVP85
          |    |--P. exul (Beyrich 1846)PVP85
          |    |--P. gladiator (Eichwald 1858)PVP85
          |    |--P. macrophthalmus (Kutorga 1854)PVP85
          |    |--P. perlonlongus Nikolaisen 1961PVP85
          |    |--P. spinulosus (Nieszkowski 1857)PVP85
          |    `--P. waehli (Öpik 1928)PVP85
          |  `--Ceraurinus Barton 1913 [incl. Remipyga Whittington 1954]PVP85
          |       |--*C. marginatus Barton 1913PVP85
          |       |--C. daedalus Cox 1933PVP85
          |       |--C. glaber (Whittington 1954)PVP85
          |       |--C. icarus (Billings 1860)PVP85
          |       |--C. mitis (Salter 1865)PVP85
          |       |--C. noduliferus Roy 1941PVP85
          |       |--C. platycanthus Bradley 1930PVP85
          |       |--C. serratus Ludvigsen 1979PVP85
          |       `--C. weberi (Lomovickaja 1936)PVP85
             |--Cerauromeros Přibyl & Vaněk in Přibyl, Vaněk & Pek 1985PVP85
             |    `--*C. hydei (Weller 1907) [=Ceraurus hydei]PVP85
             |--Proromma Lane 1971PVP85
             |    |--*P. bregmops Lane 1971PVP85
             |    `--P. acanthodes (Marr & Nicholson 1888)PVP85
             |--Crotalocephalus Salter 1853 [incl. Cerauroides Prantl & Přibyl 1947]PVP85
             |    |--*C. articulatus (Münster 1840)PVP85
             |    |--C. elongatus (Kobayashi & Hamada 1974)PVP85
             |    |--C. lunshanensis (Grabau 1924)PVP85
             |    |--C. orientalis (Kobayashi & Hamada 1974)PVP85
             |    |--C. sculptus Etheridge & Mitchell 1917F71
             |    |--C. silverdalensis Etheridge & Mitchell 1917 [=Cheirurus (Crotalocephalus) silverdalensis]F71
             |    `--C. sternbergiRC93
             `--Ktenoura Lane 1971PVP85
                  |--*K. retrospinosa Lane 1971PVP85
                  |    |--K. r. retrospinosaPVP85
                  |    `--K. r. oronapi Šnajdr 1983PVP85
                  |--K. aravaka Šnajdr 1983PVP85
                  |--K. bicuspidata (Bouček 1933)PVP85
                  |--K. conformis (Angelin 1854)PVP85
                  |--K. hyperborea (Poulsen 1934)PVP85
                  |--K. postrema (Lane 1971)PVP85
                  `--K. strux (Alberti 1970)PVP85
Cheirurinae incertae sedis:
  Ratinkaspis Přibyl & Vaněk 1977PVP85
    `--*R. bifurcata (Barrande 1852)PVP85
  Crotalocephalides Alberti 1967PVP85
    `--*C. gaertneri (Alberti 1962)PVP85
  Lehua Barton 1916PVP85
    |--*L. vinculum (Barrande 1872)PVP85
    |--L. inexpectata (Reed 1906)PVP85
    |--L. princeps (Reed 1908)PVP85
    `--L. quadrata (Lisogor 1954)PVP85
  Apollonaspis Petrunina 1975PVP85
    |--*A. lauta Petrunina 1975PVP85
    |--A. argus (Whittington 1963)PVP85
    `--A. kazachstanica Petrunina 1975PVP85

*Type species of generic name indicated


[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[PVP85] Přibyl, A., J. Vaněk & I. Pek. 1985. Phylogeny and taxonomy of family Cheiruridae (Trilobita). Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis Facultas Rerum Naturalium Geographica-Geologica XXIV 83: 107–193.

[RC93] Romano, M., W. T. Chang, W. T. Dean, G. D. Edgecombe, R. A. Fortey, D. J. Holloway, P. D. Lane, A. W. Owen, R. M. Owens, A. R. Palmer, A. W. A. Rushton, J. H. Shergold, D. J. Siveter & M. A. Whyte. 1993. Arthropoda (Trilobita). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 279–296. Chapman & Hall: London.

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