Pitseed goosefoot Chenopodium berlandieri, copyright Matt Lavin.

Belongs within: Chenopodiaceae.
Contains: Chenopodium section Orthosporum.

Chenopodium, goosefoots, is a cosmopolitan genus of herbs and shrubs that often bear glandular or powdery leaves. Some species of the genus are known for their culinary uses, whether as pot herbs (e.g. white goosefoot C. album) or grains (e.g. quinoa C. quinoa).

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Annual or perennial, glabrous, glandular, or powdery. Stalk with branches absent to generally more or less spreading. Leaves generally petioled, linear to deltate, entire to lobed, reduced upward; base generally tapered. Inflorescences spheric clusters, spikes, or panicle-like, generally dense; bracts gen absent; flowers generally sessile. Flower with calyx segments generally 5, fused or not, persistent, flat to keeled; stamens generally 5; ovary lenticular to spheric, stigmas 2–5. Seed vertical or horizontal, red-brown to black; wall very thin.

<==Chenopodium Linnaeus 1753 [Chenopodieae]W84
    |--C. subg. ChenopodiumW84
    |    |--C. sect. Chenopodium [=C. sect. Pseudoblitum Hook. in Benth. & Hook. 1880]W84
    |    |    |--*C. rubrum Linnaeus 1753W84 [incl. C. humileH93]
    |    |    `--C. glaucum Linnaeus 1753W84 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--C. sect. Auricoma Aellen 1964W84
    |    |    |--C. (sect. *A.) auricomum Lindley in Mitchell 1848 (see below for synonymy)W84
    |    |    `--C. auricomiforme Murr & Thellung in Schinz 1915W84
    |    |--C. sect. Degenia Aellen 1927W84
    |    |    `--C. (sect. *D.) macrospermum Hook. 1846W84
    |    |         |--C. m. ssp. macrospermumH93
    |    |         `--C. m. ssp. halophilum (Philippi) Aellen 1929H93, W84 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--C. sect. Desertorum Wilson 1983W84
    |    |    |--C. (sect. *D.) desertorum (Black) Black 1924 [=C. microphyllum var. desertorum Black 1922]W84
    |    |    |    |--C. d. ssp. desertorumW84
    |    |    |    |--C. d. ssp. anidiophyllum (Aellen) Wilson 1983 [=C. anidiophyllum Aellen 1939]W84
    |    |    |    |--C. d. ssp. microphyllum Wilson 1983 (see below for synonymy)W84
    |    |    |    |--C. d. ssp. rectum Wilson 1983W84
    |    |    |    `--C. d. ssp. virosum Wilson 1983W84
    |    |    |--C. curvispicatum Wilson 1983W84
    |    |    `--C. gaudichaudianum (Moq.) Wilson 1983 (see below for synonymy)W84
    |    |--C. sect. Lepropyllum Dumort. 1827 [=C. sect. Chenopodiastrum Moq. in DC. 1849 (nom. illeg.)]W84
    |    |    |--C. (sect. *L.) album L. 1753W84 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--C. detestans Kirk 1877W84
    |    |    |--C. erosum Br. 1810W84
    |    |    |--C. hubbardii Aellen 1940W84
    |    |    |--C. murale L. 1753 (see below for synonymy)W84
    |    |    `--C. vulvaria L. 1753 [=C. olidum Curtis 1788 (nom. illeg.)]W84
    |    `--C. sect. Rhagodioides Benth. 1870W84
    |         `--C. (sect. *R.) nitrariaceum (Muell.) Muell. ex Benth. 1870 (see below for synonymy)W84
    `--C. subg. Ambrosia Scott 1978W84
         |--C. sect. Ambrina Hook. in Benth. & Hook. 1880W84
         |    |--C. (subg. *Ambrosia) ambrosioides L. 1753 (see below for synonymy)W84
         |    `--C. (sect. *Ambrina) multifidum L. 1753W84 [=Roubieva multifida Moq. 1834C55b, C06]
         `--C. sect. OrthosporumW84
Chenopodium incertae sedis:
  C. allanii Aellen 1939 [incl. C. triandrum Rich. 1832 non Forst. f. 1786]A61
  C. amaranticolorCR01
  C. amboanumCV06
  C. atrovirensH93
  C. berlandieri [incl. C. berlandieri var. sinuatum, C. berlandieri var. zschackei]H93
  C. bonus-henricusC06
  C. botrysBB01
  C. californicumH93
  C. carnosulumH93
    |--C. c. var. carnosulumH93
    `--C. c. var. patagonicumH93
  C. centrorubrumMH98
  C. chenopodioidesH93
  C. desiccatumH93
  C. ficifolium Smith 1800W84
  C. foetidumC55b
  C. foliosumH93 [=C. carinatum f. foliosum Domin 1921W84; incl. C. capitatumH93, C. overiH93]
  C. fremontiiH93
  C. fruticosumC55a
  C. giganteumY98
  C. graveolensC55b
  C. hiansH93
  C. hybridumC55b
  C. incanum [=C. fremontii var. incanum]H93
    |--C. i. var. incanumH93
    `--C. i. var. occidentaleH93
  C. incognitumH93
  C. leptophyllumH93
  C. missourienseH93
  C. nevadenseH93
  C. oahuenseMK08
  C. polyspermumW17
  C. pratericola [incl. C. desiccatum var. leptophylloides]H93
  C. purpurascensC55b
  C. pusillum Hook. f. 1864 [incl. C. pumilio Hook. f. 1854 non Br. 1810]A61
  C. quinoaCR01
  C. simplex [incl. C. gigantospermum]H93
  C. sooanumRH96
  C. strictumH93
    |--C. s. var. strictumH93
    `--C. s. var. glaucophyllumH93
  C. urbicumCA27
  C. viride L. 1753W84

Chenopodium album L. 1753W84 [=C. (sect. *Chenopodiastrum) albumW84; incl. C. browneanum Roemer & Schultes 1820W84, C. album var. hastatum Klinggr. 1866W84, C. album ssp. hastatum (Klinggr.) Graebner in Asch. & Graebner 1913W84, C. lanceolatum Br. 1810 non Mulhlenb. ex Willd. 1809W84, C. opulifolium Schrader ex Koch & Ziz 1814H93, W84, C. album ssp. opulifolium (Schrader ex Koch & Ziz) Maire 1962W84, C. probstii Aellen in Probst 1928W84, C. striatiforme Murr 1901W84, C. album var. striatiforme (Murr) Murr 1902W84, C. triangulare Forsskal 1775W84]

Chenopodium ambrosioides L. 1753 [incl. C. anthelminticum L. 1753, C. ambrosioides var. anthelminticum (L.) Gray 1867, C. integrifolium Vorosch. 1942, C. suffruticosum ssp. remotum Vorosch. 1942, Ambrina spathulata Moq. 1840, C. ambrosioides f. spathulatum (Moq.) Aellen 1929, C. spathulatum (Moq.) Moq. in DC. 1849, C. suffruticosum Willd. 1809, C. ambrosioides var. suffruticosum (Willd.) Graebner in Asch. & Graebner 1913]W84

Chenopodium auricomum Lindley in Mitchell 1848 [incl. C. auricomum f. subglabrum Aellen in Probst 1928]W84

Chenopodium desertorum ssp. microphyllum Wilson 1983 [=C. microphylum Muell. 1858 non Thunb. 1794, C. triandrum var. lanuginosum Havil. 1912, C. pseudomicrophyllum Aellen 1939; incl. C. cochlearifolium Aellen 1939, Rhagodia prostrata Cunn. ex Moq. in DC. 1849 non C. prostratum (Pallas) Roemer & Schultes 1820]W84

Chenopodium gaudichaudianum (Moq.) Wilson 1983 [=Rhagodia guadichaudiana Moq. 1840; incl. R. coralliocarpa Moore 1897]W84

Chenopodium glaucum Linnaeus 1753W84 [incl. C. ambiguum Br. 1810H90, A61, C. glaucum ssp. ambiguum (Br.) Murr & Thellung ex Thellung 1912W84, C. glaucum var. ambiguum (Br.) Hook. 1857W84, C. ambiguum var. majus Moq. in DC. 1849W84, C. ambiguum var. minus Moq. in DC. 1849W84, C. glaucum f. minus (Moq.) Aellen 1931W84, C. littorale Moq. 1840 non (L.) Thunb. 1815W84, C. glaucum var. littorale Rodway 1903W84, C. glaucum ssp. salinumH93]

Chenopodium macrospermum ssp. halophilum (Philippi) Aellen 1929H93, W84 [=C. halophilum Philippi 1861W84; incl. C. macrospermum var. farinosumH93]

Chenopodium murale L. 1753 [incl. C. biforme Nees in Lehm. 1845, C. murale var. biforme (Nees) Moq. in DC. 1849, C. congestum Hook. 1847, Rhagodia baccata var. congesta (Hook.) Hook. 1857, R. billardierei var. congesta (Hook.) Benth. 1870, R. congesta (Hook.) Moq. in DC. 1849]W84

Chenopodium nitrariaceum (Muell.) Muell. ex Benth. 1870 [=Rhagodia nitrariacea Muell. 1858; incl. C. lycioides Gand. 1919]W84

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[BB01] Bedrossian, A. G., P. S. Beauchamp, B. Bernichi, V. Dev, K. Z. Kitaw & H. Rechtshaffen. 2001. Analysis of North American Chenopodium botrys essential oil isolation and structure of two new sesquiterpene alcohols. Journal of Essential Oil Research 13: 393–400.

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[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

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[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[RH96] Remaudière, G., & S. E. Halbert. 1996. American species of the genus Brachyunguis Das (Homoptera: Aphididae), including two new species. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (2): 249–255.

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[W84] Wilson, P. G. 1984. Chenopodiaceae. In: George, A. S. (ed.) Flora of Australia vol. 4. Phytolaccaceae to Chenopodiaceae pp. 81–317. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77–94.

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