Chironomus

Male buzzer midge Chironomus plumosus, copyright Didier Descouens.

Belongs within: Chironomidae.

Chironomus is a cosmopolitan genus of midges. It is distinguished from related genera by features of the male genitalia, with appendage 1 often curving or hooking or with a ventral apical knob and with a digitiform process arising distad from the microtrichiose base, and appendage 2 well developed with long setae distally. Abdominal tergites often bear dark spot and transverse bands, and the r-m area of the wing is often darkened. Larvae inhabit soft sediments and other underwater organic deposits. Depending on the species, they may require pristine to acidic or brackish water habitats (Spies et al. 2009).

Characters (from Oliver 1981): Male antenna with eleven flagellomeres. Antepronotal lobes not separated medially. Wing with crossvein r-m definitely oblique to R4+5; crossvein m-cu absent. Apex of fore tibia with inner low rounded scale that projects slightly beyond similar outer scale; hind tibia with two combs composed of basally fused spines. Male terminalia with gonocoxite and gonostylus separate; appendage 1 with basal long setae, or rarely with long setae only on apical two-thirds, without enlarged setiferous base; appendage 2 subcylindrical, longer than appendage 1, with many apical setae.

<==Chironomus Meigen 1803 [incl. Tendipes Meigen 1800 (nom. rej.)]O81
    |--C. (Chironomus)SA09
    |    |--*C. (C.) plumosus (Linnaeus 1758)F61 [=Tipula plumosaF61, Tendipes plumosusCS77]
    |    |--C. (C.) alternans Walker 1856 (see below for synonymy)F61
    |    |--C. (C.) australis Macquart 1847 (see below for synonymy)F61
    |    |--C. (C.) elegansG20
    |    |--C. (C.) magnivalva Kieffer 1917F61
    |    |--C. (C.) nepeanensis Skuse 1889F61, S89
    |    |--C. (C.) staegeriSA09
    |    |--C. (C.) tepperi Skuse 1889F61, S89
    |    `--C. (C.) vitellinus Freeman 1961F61
    |--C. (Camptochironomus) tentansMG06, F61
    |--C. (Lobochironomus) montuosusSA09
    `--C. (Nilodorum Kieffer 1921)F61
         |--C. (*N.) brevibucca (Kieffer 1921) [=*Nilodorum brevibucca]F61
         `--C. (N.) biroi Kieffer 1918F61

Chironomus incertae sedis:
  C. acutiventrisR86
    |--C. a. acutiventrisR86
    `--C. a. bavaricusR86
  C. annulatusR26
  C. aterR26
  C. atroviridisO81
  C. clavaticornisRD77
  C. frigidusT05
  C. humilis Kieffer 1917 (n. d.)F61
  C. limnaeiA71
  C. microtomus Kieffer 1917 (n. d.)F61
  C. pedellusD56
  C. prasinusBBM91
  C. pygmaeusR26
  C. quadrifasciatus Kieffer 1917 (n. d.)F61
  ‘Tendipes’ reductusCS77
  C. ripariusSA09
  C. silvestris [incl. C. silvestris var. ornatus]K01
  C. singulatusOV95
  C. stercorariusRD77
  C. sydneyensis Kieffer 1917 (n. d.)F61
  C. thummiB91
  C. venerabilis Etheridge & Olliff 1890F71
  C. vernusR26
  C. zealandicusB87
Nomina nuda: Chironomus conjungensS89
             Chironomus opponensS89
             Chironomus proximusS89
             Chironomus reflectusS89

Chironomus (Chironomus) alternans Walker 1856 [=Orthocladius alternans; incl. C. arcuatus Kieffer 1917, C. egregius Skuse 1889, C. imberbis Kieffer 1917, C. januarius Skuse 1889, C. oppositus Walker 1856, Orthocladius oppositus, C. pervagatus Skuse 1889, C. subdolus Skuse 1889, C. tenuiventris Kieffer 1917]F61

Chironomus (Chironomus) australis Macquart 1847 [incl. C. applicatus Walker 1856, Orthocladius applicatus, C. duplex Walker 1856, C. imitans Walker 1856, C. occidentalis Skuse 1889]F61

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B91] Baker, R. A. 1991. Development and life-history strategies in mussel mites (Hydrachnellae: Unionicolidae). In: Schuster, R., & P. W. Murphy (eds) The Acari: Reproduction, development and life-history strategies pp. 65–73. Chapman & Hall: London.

[BBM91] Baker, R. A., S. Brett & N. Morley. 1991. Water mite larvae parasitic on insects—a study of larval structures and host relationships. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 493–496. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[B87] Boothroyd, I. K. G. 1987. Taxonomic composition and life cycles of Chironomidae (Diptera) in a northern New Zealand stream. Entomologica Scandinavica Supplement 29: 15–22.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[F61] Freeman, P. 1961. The Chironomidae (Diptera) of Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 9 (4): 611–735.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[MG06] Mallatt, J., & G. Giribet. 2006. Further use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA genes to classify Ecdysozoa: 37 more arthropods and a kinorhynch. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 772–794.

[O81] Oliver, D. R. 1981. Chironomidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 423–458. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[OV95] Ovčarenko, N. A., & I. Vima. 1995. [Issia singulati sp. n. (Microsporidia, Telomyxidae): a new species of Microsporidia from Chironomus singulatus Meigen larvae from Kiev’s water reservoir]. Gidrobiologicheskii Zhurnal 31 (5): 78–83.

[R86] Reiss, F. 1986. Erster Nachtrag zur Chironomidenfauna Bayerns (Diptera, Chironomidae). Spixiana 9 (2): 175–178.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[S89] Skuse, F. A. A. 1889. Diptera of Australia. Part VI.—The Chironomidae. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (2): 215–311, pls 11–14.

[SA09] Spies, M., T. Andersen, J. H. Epler & C. N. Watson Jr. 2009. Chironomidae (non-biting midges). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 437–480. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[T05] Trägårdh, I. 1905. Monographie der arktischen Acariden. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 1–78. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

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