Chitonidae

Tonicia lamellosa, copyright Budak.

Belongs within: Ischnochitonina.
Contains: Chiton.

The Chitonidae are a group of chitons characterised by the presence of well-developed pectination on the outside of the insertion plates (Smith 1960). Members of the subfamily Chitoninae have a microgranulose to strongly grooved tegmentum that lacks extrapigmentary ocelli (Beesley et al. 1998).

Characters (from Smith 1960): Small to large chitons with sculpture of tegmentum varying considerably in strength and character; articulamentum consisting of strong insertion plates and sutural laminae. Outside of insertion plates with well-developed pectination which ranges from coarsely grooved to fine and comb-like. Girdle may be scaly, with short bristles, spines, or spicules, or nude and leathery.

<==Chitonidae (see below for synonymy)
    |  i. s.: Enoplochiton Gray 1847SF77
    |           `--*E. niger (Barnes 1824)S60 [=Chiton nigerSF77]
    |         Liolophura Pilsbry 1893 [=Liolopleura (l. c.); incl. Clavarizona Hull 1923]S60
    |           |--*L. japonica (Lischke 1873) [=Chiton japonicus]S60
    |           |--L. curtisiana (Smith 1884) [=Chiton curtisianus]H09
    |           |--‘Clavarizona’ hirtosaM54
    |           `--L. gaimardi [incl. L. gaimardi var. queenslandica Pilsbry 1894]H09
    |         Acanthozostera Iredale & Hull 1926S60
    |           `--A. gemmata (Blainville 1825)SF77
    |--Acanthopleura Guilding 1830SF77 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--*A. spinosa (Bruguière 1792) [=Chiton spinosus]S60
    |    |--A. aculeata (Linnaeus 1758) [=Chiton aculeatus]H09
    |    |--A. arenosaBRW98
    |    |--A. curtisianaBRW98
    |    |--A. echinatum (Barnes 1824) [=Chiton echinatus, A. (Corephium) echinata, A. (Mesotomura) echinatum]SF77
    |    |--A. gaimardiBRW98
    |    |--A. gemmataBRW98
    |    |--A. granulata (Gmelin 1791)HW78
    |    |--A. hirsutaKC11
    |    |--A. hirtosaBRW98
    |    |--A. japonicaGR98
    |    |--A. milesBRW98
    |    `--A. scabra [incl. A. californicus]C64
    |--ChitoninaeBRW98
    |    |--ChitonSF77
    |    |--Delicatoplax Iredale & Hull 1926S60
    |    |    `--*D. translucens (Hedley & Hull 1909)BRW98, S60 [=Chiton translucensS60, Rhyssoplax translucensF27]
    |    |--Radsia Gray 1847S60
    |    |    |--R. goodalli (Broderip in Broderip & Sowerby 1832) (see below for synonymy)SF77
    |    |    |--R. nigrovirescensBRW98
    |    |    `--R. sulcatus (Wood 1815) [=Chiton sulcatus, Lophyrus sulcatus]SF77
    |    |--Sypharochiton Thiele 1893BRW98, P61 [=Sympharochiton (l. c.)S60; incl. Triboplax Thiele 1893S60]
    |    |    |--*S. pelliserpentis (Quoy & Gaimard 1835) [=Chiton pelliserpentis]P61
    |    |    |--S. funereusBRW98
    |    |    |--S. sinclairi (Gray 1843)P61
    |    |    `--S. torri (Suter 1907)P61
    |    `--Rhyssoplax Thiele 1893BRW98, P61
    |         |--*R. janierensis (Gray 1821) [=Chiton (*Rhyssoplax) janierensis]S60
    |         |--R. calliozonaBRW98
    |         |--R. diaphoraBRW98
    |         |--R. exoptandaBRW98
    |         |--R. limansF27
    |         |--R. olivaceusBRW98
    |         |--R. relatus [=Chiton (Rhyssoplax) relatus]S60
    |         |--R. torrianaBRW98
    |         `--R. tricostalisBRW98
    `--Toniciinae [Tonicinae]BRW98
         |--Onithochiton Gray 1847BRW98, P61 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--O. neglectus Rochebrune 1881P61 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--O. ashbyiBRW98
         |    |--‘Mopalia’ australis Suter 1907P61
         |    |--O. helenaeBRW98
         |    |--O. hiraseiBRW98
         |    |--O. lyellii (Sowerby 1832) [=Chiton lyellii]H09
         |    |--O. marmoratus Wissel 1904P61
         |    |--O. opiniosus Iredale & Hull 1932P61
         |    |--O. quercinusBRW98
         |    `--O. subantarcticus Suter 1907P61 [=O. neglectus var. subantarcticusF27]
         `--Tonicia Gray 1847SF77 (see below for synonymy)
              |  i. s.: T. forbesii Carpenter 1857 [incl. T. crenulata (Broderip 1832) non Chiton crenulatus Risso 1826]SF77
              |           |--T. f. forbesiiSF77
              |           `--T. f. arnheimi Dall 1903SF77
              |         T. lineataC64
              |         T. lineolataC64
              |         T. picta (Reeve 1847) [=Chiton pictus]H09
              |         T. pustulifera Dall 1919O27
              |         T. submarmorea [=Chiton submarmoreus]C64
              |--*T. (Tonicia) elegans (Frembly 1827) [=Chiton elegans]S60
              `--T. (Lucilina Dall 1882)BRW98, S60 (see below for synonymy)
                   |--T. (*L.) confossa (Gould 1846)H09, S60 [=Chiton confossusS60]
                   |--T. (L.) fortilirata (Reeve 1847)BRW98, H09 [=Chiton fortiliratusH09]
                   `--T. (L.) lamellosa (Quoy & Gaimard 1835)BRW98, BW09

Acanthopleura Guilding 1830SF77 [=Canthapleura (l. c.)S60; incl. Amphitomura Pilsbry 1893S60, Corephium Gray 1847 non Brown 1827S60, Franciscia Carpenter in Dall 1882S60, Maugeria Gray 1857S60, Mesotomura Pilsbry 1893S60, Rhopalopleura Thiele 1893S60; AcanthopleurinaeBRW98]

Chitonidae [Amaurochitoninae, Chitonacea, Chitones, Chitonia, Chitonina, Gymnoplacidae, Liolophurinae, Lophyridae, Ornithochitoninae, Rhyssoplacinae, Sypharochitoninae]

Onithochiton Gray 1847BRW98, P61 [=Onitochiton (l. c.)S60, Onythochiton (l. c.)S60, Ornithochiton (l. c.)S60; incl. Onithella Mackay 1933S60, Pristochiton Clessin 1903S60]

Onithochiton neglectus Rochebrune 1881P61 [incl. Chiton undulatus Quoy & Gaimard 1835 non Wood 1828S60, *O. undulatusP61]

Radsia goodalli (Broderip in Broderip & Sowerby 1832) [=Chiton goodalli, Lophyrus goodalli; incl. C. (Radsia) chierchiae Nierstrasz 1908]SF77

Tonicia Gray 1847SF77 [=Tonichia Gray 1840 (n. n.)S60, Conicia (l. c.)S60, Tonica (l. c.)S60, Tonicea (l. c.)S60; incl. Fannettia Dall 1882S60, Fannia Dall 1882 non Robineau-Desvoidy 1830S60, Fannyia Gray 1857S60]

Tonicia (Lucilina Dall 1882)BRW98, S60 [incl. Lucia Gould 1862 non Swainson 1833S60, Onithoplax Thiele 1910S60, Toniciopsis Thiele 1893S60]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BRW98] Beesley, P. L., G. J. B. Ross & A. Wells (eds) 1998. Fauna of Australia vol. 5. Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Part A. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[GR98] Giribet, G., & C. Ribera. 1998. The position of arthropods in the animal kingdom: a search for a reliable outgroup for internal arthropod phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 9: 481–488.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[HW78] Hoffman, D. L., & P. J. Weldon. 1978. Flight responses of two intertidal gastropods (Prosobranchia: Trochidae) to sympatric predatory gastropods from Barbados. Veliger 20 (4): 361–366.

[KC11] Kocot, K. M., J. T. Cannon, C. Todt, M. R. Citarella, A. B. Kohn, A. Meyer, S. R. Santos, C. Schander, L. L. Moroz, B. Lieb & K. M. Halanych. 2011. Phylogenomics reveals deep molluscan relationships. Nature 477: 452–456.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 3. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[S60] Smith, A. G. 1960. Amphineura. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I41–I76. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[SF77] Smith, A. G., & A. J. Ferreira. 1977. Chiton fauna of the Galápagos Islands. Veliger 20 (2): 82–97.

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