Chlorophyta

Nephroselmis olivacea, copyright William Bourland.

Belongs within: Diaphoretickes.
Contains: Tetrasporales, Mamiellophyceae, Chlorodendrophyceae, Tetraphytae, Pyramimonas.

The Chlorophyta are a major group of green algae including both unicellular and multicellular lineages, with most representatives being aquatic. Plastid thylakoids may be single or stacked, and glycolate dehydrogenase is present. Cell division does not involve a phragmoplast (Adl et al. 2019).

<==Chlorophyta [Micromonadophyceae, Nephrophyceae, Nephroselmidaceae, Prasinophytae, Pterospermatales]
    |--+--MamiellophyceaeL-BC03
    |  `--+--Pycnococcaceae [Pseudoscourfieldiaceae, Pseudoscourfieldiales]L-BC03
    |     |    |--Pycnococcus provasoliL-BC03
    |     |    `--Pseudoscourfieldia Manton 1975L-BC03, EB93
    |     |         `--P. marinaL-BC03
    |     `--+--Nephroselmis Stein 1878L-BC03, AS12 [Nephroselmidophyceae]
    |        |    |--N. olivaceaL-BC03
    |        |    `--N. pyriformisWM14
    |        `--+--ChlorodendrophyceaeL-BC03
    |           `--TetraphytaeL-BC03
    `--PyramimonadalesAB19
         |  i. s.: Cymbomonas tetramitiformisAB19, MS95
         |--PyramimonasWM14
         |--HalosphaeraceaeEB93
         |    |--Hyalophysa Cleve 1900EB93
         |    `--Halosphaera Schmitz 1878AB19, EB93
         |         |--H. minorMS95
         |         `--H. viridisB26
         `--PterospermataceaeEB93
              |--Pachysphaera Ostenfeld 1899EB93
              |--‘Sphaeropsis’ Meunier 1910 nec Lév. 1842 nec Saccardo 1880EB93
              `--Pterosperma Pouchet 1893AB19, FT93
                   `--P. cristatumOC09
Chlorophyta incertae sedis:
  PedinophyceaeAS12
    |--MarsupiomonasAS12
    |--Resultor Moestrup 1991MS95
    `--Pedinomonas Korshikov 1923 [Pedinomonadales]EB93
         |--P. minorGLB04
         `--P. noctilucaeGE87
  Tetrastrum Chodat 1895M70b
    |--T. multisetumM70b
    `--T. staurogeniaeforme (Schroder) Lemmermann 1895M70b
  Sorastrum Kutzing 1845M70b
    `--S. spinulosum Nageli 1849M70b
  Richteriella Lemmermann 1898M70b
    `--R. botryoides (Schmidle) Lemmermann 1898M70b
  Lagerheimia (De Toni) Chodat 1895M70b
    `--L. longiseta (Lemmermann) Printz 1914 [=Chodatella longiseta]M70b
  Errerella Conrad 1913M70b
    `--E. bornhemiensis Conrad 1913M70b
  Golenkinia Chodat 1894M70b
    `--G. radiata (Chodat) Wille 1911M70b
  Micractinium Fresenius 1858M70a
    `--M. quadrisetum (Lemmermann) Smith 1916M70a
  CalcipateraT97
  Pseudulvella Wille 1910N10
    `--*P. americana (Snow) Wille 1910N10
  TetrasporalesA90
  Tubulistroma Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*T. scrofulosum Vologdin 1962G79
  PaulschulziaKM01
  Pteromonas Seligo 1886KM01, M70b
    `--P. rectangularis Lemmermann 1900M70b
  PalmophyllophyceaeAB19
    |--PrasinococcalesAB19
    |    |--PrasinococcusAS12
    |    `--PrasinodermaAB19
    `--PalmophyllalesAS12
         |--Palmophyllum crassumAS12, PP64
         |--PalmoclathrusAS12
         `--VerdigellasAS12
  Zygomitus reticulatesL10
  Kornmannia leptodermaL10
  Chloraster Ehrenberg 1848EB93
  Stephanoptera Dangeard 1910EB93
  LaerosphaeridiaceaeEB93
    |--Protoleiosphaeridium Timofeev 1966EB93
    |--Zonosphaeridium Timofeev 1969EB93
    |--Polyedrosphaeridium Timofeev 1966EB93
    |    `--P. bullatum Timofeev 1966E93
    `--Trachysphaeridium Timofeev 1966EB93
         `--T. decorumT84
  Bipedinomonas Carter 1937EB93
  Tasmanites Newton 1875H75 [TasmanitaceaeEB93]
  Cymatiosphaera [Cymatiosphaeraceae, Herkomorphitae]EB93
    `--C. postiiEB93
  Pterosphaeridia Mädler 1963 [Pterosphaeridiaceae]EB93
  PterospermellaceaeEB93
  ChloropicophyceaeAB19
    |--ChloroparvulaAB19
    `--ChloropiconAB19
  Picocystis [Picocystophyceae]AB19
  Globulina Link 1820KC01
  Microglena Ehrenb. 1831KC01
  Rhodochytrium Lagerh. 1893KC01

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[A90] Archibald, P. A. 1990. Soil algae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 69–96. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1–509.

[E93] Edwards, D. 1993. Monera (bacteria, blue-green algae). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 3–7. Chapman & Hall: London.

[EB93] Edwards, D., J. G. Baldauf, P. R. Brown, K. J. Dorning, M. Feist, L. T. Gallagher, N. Grambast-Fessard, M. B. Hart, A. J. Powell & R. Riding. 1993. ‘Algae’. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 15–40. Chapman & Hall: London.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i–viii, 1–351.

[GE87] Gaines, G., & M. Elbrächter. 1987. Heterotrophic nutrition. In: Taylor, F. J. R. (ed.) The Biology of Dinoflagellates pp. 224–268. Blackwell Scientific.

[G79] Glaessner, M. F. 1979. Precambrian. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A79–A118. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[GLB04] Gray, M. W., B. F. Lang & G. Burger. 2004. Mitochondria of protists. Annual Review of Genetics 38: 477–524.

[H75] Häntzschel, W. 1975. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea Suppl. 1. Trace Fossils and Problematica 2nd ed. The Geological Society of America: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[KM01] Karol, K. G., R. M. McCourt, M. T. Cimino & C. F. Delwiche. 2001. The closest living relatives of land plants. Science 294: 2351–2353.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[L10] Levenets, I. R. 2010. Macroalgae of fouling, scallop epibiosis and benthos in the southern Primorye, Sea of Japan. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of “Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean”, 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 208–213. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

[L-BC03] López-Bautista, J. M., & R. L. Chapman. 2003. Phylogenetic affinities of the Trentepohliales inferred from small-subunit rDNA. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 2099–2106.

[M70a] Meel, L. van. 1970a. Etudes limnologiques en Belgique. V.—Le «Kragewiel» à Bornem. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 46 (1): 1–14.

[M70b] Meel, L. van. 1970b. Etudes limnologiques en Belgique. VI.—Les méandres de la Durme à Hamme (Province de Flandre Orientale). Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 46 (13): 1–56.

[MS95] Melkonian, M., & B. Surek. 1995. Phylogeny of the Chlorophyta: congruence between ultrastructural and molecular evidence. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 120 (2): 191–208.

[N10] Norris, J. N. 2010. Marine algae of the northern Gulf of California: Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 94: 1–276.

[OC09] Okamoto, N., C. Chantangsi, A. Horák, B. S. Leander & P. J. Keeling. 2009. Molecular phylogeny and description of the novel katablepharid Roombia truncata gen. et sp. nov., and establishment of the Hacrobia taxon nov. PLoS One 4 (9): e7080.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[T84] Tewari, V. C. 1984. Stromatolites and Precambrian–Lower Cambrian biostratigraphy of the Lesser Himalaya. Proc. Vth India Geophytol. Conf., Lucknow (1983), Spec. Publ. 1984: 71–97.

[T97] Torres, A. M. 1997. Fossil algae were very different from xenophyophores. Lethaia 29: 287–288.

[WM14] Wickett, N. H., S. Mirarab, N. Nguyen, T. Warnow, E. Carpenter, N. Matasci, S. Ayyampalayam, M. S. Barker, J. G. Burleigh, M. A. Gitzendanner, B. R. Ruhfel, E. Wafula, J. P. Der, S. W. Graham, S. Mathews, M. Melkonian, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis, N. W. Miles, C. J. Rothfels, L. Pokorny, A. J. Shaw, L. DeGeronimo, D. W. Stevenson, B. Surek, J. C. Villarreal, B. Roure, H. Philippe, C. W. dePamphilis, T. Chen, M. K. Deyholos, R. S. Baucom, T. M. Kutchan, M. M. Augustin, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, Z. Tian, Z. Yan, X. Wu, X. Sun, G. K.-S. Wong & J. Leebens-Mack. 2014. Phylotranscriptomic analysis of the origin and early diversification of land plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 111 (45): E4859–E4868.

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