Chloropidae

Barley gout fly Chlorops pumilionis, copyright Dick Belgers.

Belongs within: Schizophora.

The Chloropidae, frit flies, are a group of small flies characterised by the presence of a sharp carina on the propleuron. They are ecologically diverse, with larval diets varying from phytophagous to predatory to saprophagous. Some phytophagous species, such as the wheat stem maggot Meromyza americana, are pests of cereal crops.

Species are divided between three subfamilies in which the costa ends at or only slightly beyond the apex of vein R4+5 in members of the Chloropinae but reaches the apex of M1 in Siphonellopsinae and Oscinellinae. Siphonellopsinae have long and proclinate or lateroclinate fronto-orbital bristles whereas Oscinellinae have short and/or reclinate or erect fronto-orbitals (Wheeler 2010). Within Oscinellinae, a long, dark, ventral or pre-apical spur is present on the hind tibia in members of the genera Cadrema, Goniaspis, Liohippelates, Apallates and Hippelates (Wheeler 2010).

Characters (from Sabrosky 1987): Small flies 1.5–5.0 mm long, rarely larger, with reduced bristling. Head with frons broad in both sexes, usually with a large, strongly sclerotized, plate-like, sharply margined ocellar triangle; surface of ocellar triangle varying from smooth and polished to densely pruinose and dull, usually with single row of piliferous punctures on or just outside lateral margins, occasionally with two or more rows on each side of triangle, rarely entirely punctate. Head profile usually showing frons only slightly projecting, face receding or slightly concave, vibrissal angle obtusely rounded (rarely projecting and acutely angulate). Eye large, round or ovate in outline, with long axis usually vertical or nearly so except in genera with projecting frons, bare to short-haired, rarely densely long-haired. Face flat or with low carina; carina well-developed though narrow in a few genera, rarely broad and flat. Antenna porrect; flagellomere 1 commonly orbicular or nearly so, sometimes reniform, occasionally elongate; arista micropubescent to short pubescent, rarely entirely bare, sometimes long-haired, sometimes flattened and ensiform. Bristles of head reduced, usually weak, seldom strong; inner and outer vertical, postocellar, and ocellar bristles commonly present; postocellar bristles parallel to convergent or cruciate; fronto-orbital bristles usually consisting of a row of short reclinate hairs, occasionally consisting of one to several pairs of strong and distinct bristles that are usually erect and reclinate (rarely proclinate); vibrissa often present, but usually weak, hair-like, and inconspicuous. Thorax with scutum usually longer than broad, convex, finely haired with hairs often set in definite rows, sometimes with coarse distinct piliferous punctures; scutellum short and rounded to elongate conical, sometimes with marginal tubercles bearing bristles. Propleuron sharply carinate anteriorly. Thoracic bristling greatly reduced, rarely with bristles on disc of scutum; one postpronotal bristle (often weak and inconspicuous), one anterior and one or two posterior notopleural bristles, and one postalar, one posterior dorsocentral, and one propleural bristle (often pale, weak, and inconspicuous) almost always present; one pair of apical scutellar and one or two (rarely more) pairs of subapical scutellar bristles present. Upper half of pleuron usually glabrous; anepisternum occasionally with hairs. Legs usually short and slender, without bristles; mid or hind tibia sometimes with curved apical or subapical spur; hind tibia commonly posterodorsally with elongate oval slightly depressed tibial organ. Wing rarely absent or reduced, usually hyaline, rarely with any color pattern; venation remarkably consistent throughout family; C continuing at most to M1+2, with subcostal break; Sc usually very faint, present as a trace close to R1, evanescent distally; R4+5 and M1+2 usually long, ending respectively before and behind apex of wing; cells bm and dm wholly confluent, appearing as one long cell; CuA1 commonly with a distinct flexure in its long penultimate sector, opposite or before middle of cell bm + dm; crossveins r-m and dm-cu usually present, although crossvein dm-cu (posterior crossvein) rarely absent; A1 and cell cup always absent; anal area of wing usually well-developed and broadly rounded, seldom narrowed. Abdomen broad, tapering to apex, with segments preceding terminalia usually approximately equal in length; spiracles of tergites l-5 situated in membrane adjacent to lateral edges of tergites. Male terminalia showing extreme variation in position of spiracles, symmetry, and development and fusion of parts; epandrium (tergite 9) well-developed, with movable surstyli; cerci usually small, separate, or fused at bases, or completely fused; aedeagus greatly reduced. Female terminalia simple; cerci usually evident as pair of long-haired pendant lobes that are rarely fused to form a compressed and knifelike or spike-like ovipositor; two sclerotized spermathecae present, rudimentary, attached to long and very fine ducts.

<==Chloropidae [Oscinidae, Siphonellopsidae]
    |--ApotropinaW10 [incl. LeasiopleuraS87; SiphonellopsinaeW10]
    |--ChloropinaeW10
    |    |--NeodiplotoxaW10
    |    |--HomaluroidesW10
    |    |--Steleocerellus flavifronsW10
    |    |--Trigonomma fossulatumW10
    |    |--Parectecephala euceraW10
    |    |--Elliponeura debilisW10, S87
    |    |--Pseudopachychaeta approximatonervisW10, S87
    |    |--Cetema subvittatumS87
    |    |--Epichlorops exilisS87
    |    |--LasiosinaS87
    |    |--Anthracophaga declinataS87
    |    |--EctecephalaW10
    |    |    |--E. albistylumW10
    |    |    `--E. capillataW10
    |    |--DiplotoxaW10
    |    |    |--D. inconstansK01
    |    |    |--D. neozealandicaM83
    |    |    `--D. versicolorS87
    |    |--MeromyzaW10
    |    |    |--M. americanaW10
    |    |    |--M. opaculaW10
    |    |    `--M. saltatrixK01
    |    |--OscinisK01
    |    |    |--O. denticornisR26
    |    |    |--O. elegansR26
    |    |    |--O. fritG20
    |    |    |--O. lineataR26
    |    |    |--O. mauraK01
    |    |    `--O. vindicataK01
    |    |--Thaumatomyia Zenker 1833W10, Ra96 [incl. Chloropisca Loew 1866Ra96]
    |    |    |--T. elongatula (Becker 1910) [=Chloropisca elongatula]Ra96
    |    |    |--T. glabra [=Chloropisca glabra]Ra96
    |    |    |--T. notataWT11
    |    |    |--‘Chloropisca’ ornataK01
    |    |    |--T. parvicepsS87
    |    |    `--T. pullaS87
    |    `--ChloropsW10
    |         |--C. certimusW10
    |         |--C. didymaK01
    |         |--C. humilisK01
    |         |--C. pumilionisS87
    |         |--C. rubicundusS87
    |         |--C. serenaK01
    |         |--C. stigmaticalisS87
    |         `--C. taeniopusRD77
    `--Oscinellinae [Hippelatinae, Rhodesiellinae]W10
         |--GoniaspisW10
         |--Apallates coxendixW10
         |--AcanthopeltastesW10
         |--Siphunculina striolataW10
         |--Chaetochlorops inquilinusW10
         |--FiebrigellaW10
         |--BiorbitellaW10
         |--Medeventor nubosusW10
         |--Metasiphonella magnificaW10
         |--Stenoscinis longipesW10
         |--Psilacrum arpidiaW10, S87
         |--Opetiophora stramineaW10
         |--EnderleiniellaW10
         |--AgrophaspidiumW10
         |--Eribolus nanaW10, S87
         |--Conioscinella badiaW10, M83
         |--Pseudogaurax signatusW10
         |--OnychaspidiumW10
         |--Loxobathmis obliquumW10
         |--OscinicitaW10
         |--Malloewia nigripalpisW10, S87
         |--CoryphisoptronW10
         |--Lipara lucensW10, S87
         |--PseudeurinaW10
         |--DiscogastrellaW10
         |--Ceratobarys eulophusS87
         |--Calamoncosis minimaS87
         |--Melanochaeta eunotaS87
         |--Speccafrons mallochiS87
         |--Lioscinella flavoapicalisS87, CM70
         |--Hapleginella conicolaS87
         |--Neoscinella gigasS87
         |--Sacatonia graminivoraS87
         |--Dasyopa latifronsS87
         |--Rhodesiella [incl. Meroscinis]W10
         |    `--R. brimleyiW10
         |--LiohippelatesW10
         |    |--L. bishoppiW10
         |    `--L. pusioE66
         |--OscinisomaS87
         |    |--O. alienumS87
         |    `--O. fritS94
         |--EugauraxW10
         |    |--E. floridensisS87
         |    `--E. setigenaW10
         |--OlcellaW10
         |    |--O. cinereaW10
         |    `--O. punctifronsS87
         |--TricimbaW10
         |    |--T. melancholica [=Oscinella melancholica]S87
         |    `--T. trisulcataW10
         |--IncertellaW10
         |    |--I. albipalpisWT11
         |    `--I. incertaS87
         |--RhopalopterumW10
         |    |--*R. limitatumW10
         |    `--R. carbonariumS87
         |--ElachipteraW10
         |    |--E. costataW10
         |    `--E. eulophusW10
         |--MonochaetoscinellaW10
         |    |--M. anonymaW10
         |    `--M. nigricornisW10
         |--SiphonellaS87
         |    |--S. laevigataK01
         |    `--S. oscininaS87
         |--DicraeusS87
         |    |--D. incongruusS87
         |    `--D. ingratusS87
         |--AphanotrigonumS87
         |    |--A. cinctellumK09
         |    `--A. scabrumS87
         |--Hippelates [incl. Olcanabates]W10
         |    |--H. insignificans (Malloch 1931) [=Cadrema insignificans]MM04
         |    |--H. plebejusW10
         |    `--H. pusioBM76
         |--GauraxW10
         |    |--G. festivusW10
         |    |--G. flavoapicalisCM91
         |    |--G. luteohirtusCM91
         |    `--G. tonnoiriCM91
         |--OscinellaW10
         |    |--O. blandaW10
         |    |--O. columbianaE66
         |    |--O. fritS87
         |    |--O. grandissimaS87
         |    `--O. nigerrimaK09
         |--CadremaW10
         |    |--C. lonchopteroidesP87
         |    |--C. nigricornisCM91
         |    |    |--C. n. nigricornisCM91
         |    |    `--C. n. flavusCM91
         |    `--C. pallidaW10
         `--NotaulacellaW10
              |--N. albitarsisS96
              |--N. argentigena Sabrosky 1996S96
              |--N. busckiS96
              |--N. cabimaeS96
              |--N. comptaS96
              |--N. spinosaS96
              |--N. trivittata Sabrosky 1996S96
              `--N. vittataS96
Chloropidae incertae sedis:
  Batrachomyia Skuse 1889S87, S89b
    |--B. nigritarsis Skuse 1889S89b
    `--B. quadrilineata Skuse 1889S89b
  BotanobiaRe96
    |--B. luteohirtaCM70
    `--B. tonnoiriRe96
  Oscinomorpha albisetosaK09
  EnsiferellaMC13
  Protoscinella electricaS87
  Ephydroscinis raymenti Curran 1930 [incl. Neoborborus speculabundus Rayment 1931]R35
  Lasiopleura griseaE66
  NombaO98
  ChloropsinaO98
  EutrophaO98
  PemphigonotusO98
  ScoliophthalmusO98
  AnatrichusO98
  MeijerellaO98
  ThressaO98
  PlatycephalaRD77
  ‘Agromyza’ aberransP92
  LestophonusS89a
    |--L. iceryae Williston 1888S89a
    `--L. monophlebi Skuse 1889S89a

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[CM70] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1970. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 656–740. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[E66] Evans, H. E. 1966. The Comparative Ethology and Evolution of the Sand Wasps. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601–646.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[MM04] Mercer, C. F., & K. K. Moore. 2004. Adults of the native face fly (Hippelates insignificans) (Diptera: Chloropidae) accumulate in areas of elevated carbon dioxide. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 57–60.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[P87] Peterson, B. V. 1987. Lonchopteridae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 675–680. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[Ra96] Raspi, A. 1996. Thaumatomyia elongatula (Becker) (Chloropidae) and Leucopis annulipes Zetterstedt (Chamaemyiidae): two Diptera preying on Phloeomyzus passerinii (Signoret) (Homoptera: Phloeomyzidae) in Italy. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (3): 509–516.

[R35] Rayment, T. 1935. A Cluster of Bees: Sixty essays on the life-histories of Australian bees, with specific descriptions of over 100 new species. Endeavour Press: Sydney.

[Re96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[S87] Sabrosky, C. W. 1987. Chloropidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1049–1067. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[S96] Sabrosky, C. W. 1996. Two additional species of Notaulacella Enderlein (Diptera: Chloropidae) from Panama. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (3): 471–472.

[S89a] Skuse, F. A. A. 1889a. Notes on the genus Lestophonus, Williston, and description of a new species. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (1): 123–126.

[S89b] Skuse, F. A. A. 1889b. Description of a new genus (Batrachomyia, W. S. Macleay, ms.), and two species of dipterous insects parasitic upon Australian frogs. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (1): 171–177, pl. 10.

[S94] Southcott, R. V. 1994. Revision of the larvae of the Microtrombidiinae (Acarina, Microtrombidiidae), with notes on life histories. Zoologica 48 (2): 1–155.

[W10] Wheeler, T. A. 2010. Chloropidae (frit flies, grass flies, eye gnats). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1137–1153. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

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