Chondrichthyes

Tooth of Cladodus mirabilis, copyright thair.

Belongs within: Acanthodii.
Contains: Eugeneodontiformes, Petalodontiformes, Selachimorpha, Pristidae, Rhinobatiformes, Rajiformes, Myliobatiformes, Torpediniformes, Subterbranchialia, Palaeoselachii, Ctenacanthiformes, Hybodontiformes.

The Chondrichthyes, commonly known as the cartilaginous fishes in reference to their distinction from other living jawed vertebrates in retaining a primarily cartilaginous skeleton, include the sharks, rays and chimaeras. Members of this clade are united by the presence of tessellate prismatic calcified cartilage (Davis et al. 2012).

The Euselachii are a major clade of chondrichthyan fishes, including all post-Palaeozoic sharks and rays and their relatives, united by the development of propterygial and mesopterygial cartilages supporting the pectoral fins (Bond 1996).

<==Chondrichthyes [Chondrichthiomorphi, Cladoselachii, Elasmobranchii, Euselachii, Paraselachimorpha]
    |--PucapampellaDFC12
    `--+--+--DoliodusDFC12
       |  `--TamiobatisDFC12
       `--+--+--Tristychius arcuatusDFC12, Z90
          |  `--+--Neoselachii [Hypnosqualea, Selachii, Squalea]B96
          |     |    |  i. s.: Agaleus Duffin & Ward 1983 [Agaleidae]D01
          |     |    |           `--A. dorsetensis Duffin & Ward 1983D01
          |     |    |         Vallisia coppi Duffin 1982DC01
          |     |    |         Glaucostegus [Rhinopristiformes]VF21
          |     |    |           |--G. granulatusVF21
          |     |    |           |--G. halaviVF21
          |     |    |           `--G. thoinVF21
          |     |    |--SelachimorphaMW07
          |     |    `--Batoidea [Batoidei, Batomorphii, Platosomeae, Rajomorphii]MW07
          |     |         |  i. s.: PristidaeB96
          |     |         |         Heteronarce garmaniH72
          |     |         |         RhinobatiformesCL99
          |     |         |         Parapalaeobates [Parapalaeobatidae]CDZ93
          |     |         |           |--P. atlanticus Arambourg 1952CDZ93
          |     |         |           `--P. pygmaeus (Quaas 1902)CDZ93
          |     |         |         SulcidensVF21
          |     |         |--RajiformesMW07
          |     |         `--+--MyliobatiformesMW07
          |     |            `--TorpediniformesMW07
          |     `--SubterbranchialiaCDZ93
          `--+--PalaeoselachiiDFC12
             `--+--Cladodoides wildungensisDFC12
                `--Protoselachii [Xenacanthimorpha]B96
                     |--CtenacanthiformesDFC12
                     `--HybodontiformesB96
Chondrichthyes incertae sedis:
  MongolepididaMG01
    |--Shiqianolepis [Shiqianolepididae]MG01
    |    `--S. hollandiMG01
    `--MongolepididaeMG01
         |--Mongolepis rozmanaeMG01
         |--Teslepis jucundaMG01
         |--Sodolepis lucensMG01
         `--XinjiangichthysMG01
              |--X. pluridentatusMG01
              `--X. tarimensisMG01
  Pilolepis margaritifera Thorsteinsson 1973MG01, CDZ93
  PolymerolepisMG01
  HamiltonichthysB09
  Kannathalepis Märss & Gagnier 2001 [Kannathalepididae]MG01
    `--*K. milleri Märss & Gagnier 2001 [=Ekismodus tetragonum Märss & Gagnier 1999 (n. n.)]MG01
  ElegestolepisMG01
    |--E. conicaMG01
    `--E. grossi Karatajute-Talimaa 1973CDZ93
  Paracestracion sarstedtensisDC02
  Serratolamna serrataPSB03
  PetrodusW85
  ListracanthusW85
  CalopodusW85
  Bathycheilodus St. John & Worthen 1875W85
  Pristicladodus St. John & Worthen 1875W85
  DiplodusW85
    |--D. duplicatus [=Thrinacodus duplicatus]W85
    |--D. gibbosus Agassiz 1837L85
    `--D. incurvus [=Thrinacodus incurvus]W85
  Cratoselache pruvostiW85
  Amblypristis cheops Dames 1888G92
  Geisacanthus St. John & Worthen 1875N05
  Surcaudalus rostratus Leu 1989RE01
  DebeeriusDFC12
  OnychoselacheDFC12
  *Styptobasis knightiana Cope 1891L85
  Venustodus argutus (St John & Worthen 1875)L85
  Emsolepis Turner 2004BT12
  Bulbocanthus rugosus Bryant 1932CDZ93
  Apedolepis tomlinsonaeTBN04
  Cosmopolitodus hastalisLB10
  Anareodus Long & Young 1995HL99
    `--*A. statei Long & Young 1995HL99
  Protacrodontidae [Protacrodontoidea]CDZ93
    |--Protacrodus vetustus Jaekel 1921CDZ93
    `--Holmesella Gunnell 1931CDZ93, H62
         `--H. equilaterata Gunnell 1933CDZ93
  Desmiodontidae [Desmiodontida, Desmiodontiformes]CDZ93
    |--Desmiodus tumidus St John & Worthen 1875CDZ93
    `--Heteropetalus elegantulus Lund 1977CDZ93
  Coronodontidae [Coronodontida, Coronodontiformes]CDZ93
    |--Coronodus reimanni Bryant 1923CDZ93
    |--Diademodus Harris 1951AL99
    |    `--*D. hydei Harris 1950W85
    `--Siamodus Long 1990AL99
  EugeneodontiformesCDZ93
  Orodontidae [Orodontiformes]CDZ93
    |--Orodus ‘corrugatus’ Romer 1942 non Newberry & Worthen 1870CDZ93
    `--Hercynolepis meischneri Gross 1973CDZ93
  PetalodontiformesCDZ93
  Squatinactis [Squatinactidae, Squatinactiformes]CDZ93
    `--S. caudispinatus Lund & Zangerl 1974CDZ93
  Plesioselachus Anderson, Long et al. 1999AL99
    `--*P. macracanthus Anderson, Long et al. 1999AL99
  Goodrichthys eskdalensisD93

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AL99] Anderson, M. E., J. A. Long, R. W. Gess & N. Hiller. 1999. An unusual new fossil shark (Pisces: Chondrichthyes) from the Late Devonian of South Africa. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 57: 151–156.

[B96] Bond, C. E. 1996. Biology of Fishes 2nd ed. Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth.

[B09] Brazeau, M. D. 2009. The braincase and jaws of a Devonian ‘acanthodian’ and modern gnathostome origins. Nature 457: 305–308.

[BT12] Burrow, C. J., & S. Turner. 2012. Fossil fish taphonomy and the contribution of microfossils in documenting Devonian vertebrate history. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 189–223. Springer.

[CDZ93] Cappetta, H., C. Duffin & J. Zidek. 1993. Chondrichthyes. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 593–609. Chapman & Hall: London.

[CL99] Compagno, L. J. V., & P. R. Last. 1999. Rhinidae (=Rhynchobatidae). Wedgefishes. In: Carpenter, K. E., & V. H. Niem (eds) The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae) pp. 1418–1422. FAO: Rome.

[DFC12] Davis, S. P., J. A. Finarelli & M. I. Coates. 2012. Acanthodes and shark-like conditions in the last common ancestor of modern gnathostomes. Nature 486: 247–250.

[D01] Delsate, D. 2001. L’ichthyofaune du Pliensbachian (Jurassique inferieur) de Lorraine et des Ardennes (France): premiers resultats. Bulletin de l’Académie Lorraine des Sciences 40 (1–2): 47–69.

[DC01] Delsate, D., & L. Candoni. 2001. Description de nouveaux morphotypes dentaires de Batomorphii toarciens (Jurassique inférieur) du Bassin de Paris: Archaeobatidae nov. fam. Bull. Soc. Nat. Luxemb. 102: 131–143.

[DC02] Delsate, D., & L. Candoni. 2002. Les premieres raies (Chondrichthyes—Elasmobranchii) au Jurassique inferieur en Lorraine (Luxembourg, Belgique, France) et dans le Bassin de Paris. Bulletin de l’Académie Lorraine des Sciences 41 (3–4): 93–103.

[D93] Duffin, C. J. 1993. Mesozoic chondrichthyan faunas 1. Middle Norian (Upper Triassic) of Luxembourg. Palaeontographica Abteilung A: Paläozoologie—Stratigraphie 229: 15–36.

[G92] Gingerich, P. D. 1992. Marine mammals (Cetacea and Sirenia) from the Eocene of Gebel Mokattam and Fayum, Egypt: stratigraphy, age, and paleoenvironments. University of Michigan Papers on Paleontology 30: i–ix, 1–84.

[HL99] Hampe, O., & J. A. Long. 1999. The histology of Middle Devonian chondrichthyan teeth from southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 57: 23–36.

[H62] Hass, W. H. 1962. Conodonts. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W3–W69. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[H72] Hulley, P. A. 1972. The origin, interrelationship and distribution of southern African Rajidae (Chondrichthyes, Batoidei). Annals of the South African Museum 60 (1): 1–103.

[LB10] Lambert, O., G. Bianucci, K. Post, C. de Muizon, R. Salas-Gismondi, M. Urbina & J. Reumer. 2010. The giant bite of a new raptorial sperm whale from the Miocene of Peru. Nature 466: 105–108.

[L85] Lund, R. 1985. Stethacanthid elasmobranch remains from the Bear Gulch Limestone (Namurian E2b) of Montana USA. American Museum Novitates 2828: 1–24.

[MW07] Mallatt, J., & C. J. Winchell. 2007. Ribosomal RNA genes and deuterostome phylogeny revisited: more cyclostomes, elasmobranchs, reptiles, and a brittle star. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43: 1005–1022.

[MG01] Märss, T., & P.-Y. Gagnier. 2001. A new chondrichthyan from the Wenlock, Lower Silurian, of Baillie-Hamilton Island, the Canadian Arctic. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21 (4): 693–701.

[N05] Newman, M. J. 2005. A systematic review of the placoderm genus Cosmacanthus and a description of acanthodian remains from the Upper Devonian of Scotland. Palaeontology 48 (5): 1111–1116.

[PSB03] Pereda Suberbiola, X., N. Bardet, S. Jouve, M. Iarochène, B. Bouya & M. Amaghzaz. 2003. A new azhdarchid pterosaur from the Late cretaceous phosphates of Morocco. In: Buffetaut, E., & J.-M. Mazin (eds) Evolution and Palaeobiology of Pterosaurs. Geological Society Special Publications 217: 79–90. The Geological Society: London.

[RE01] Ritchie, A., & G. D. Edgecombe. 2001. An odontogriphid from the Upper Permian of Australia. Palaeontology 44 (5): 861–874.

[TBN04] Turner, S., A. Blieck & G. S. Nowlan. 2004. Vertebrates (agnathans and gnathostomes). In: Webby, B. D., F. Paris, M. L. Droser & I. G. Percival (eds) The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event pp. 327–335. Columbia University Press.

[VF21] Vullo, R., E. Frey, C. Ifrim, M. A. González González, E. S. Stinnesbeck & W. Stinnesbeck. 2021. Manta-like planktivorous sharks in Late Cretaceous oceans. Science 371: 1253–1256.

[W85] Williams, M. E. 1985. The “cladodont level” sharks of the Pennsylvanian Black Shales of central North America. Palaeontographica Abt. A 190: 83–158.

[Z90] Zangerl, R. 1990. Two new stethacanthid sharks (Stethacanthidae, Symmoriida) from the Pennsylvanian of Indiana, U. S. A. Palaeontographica Abteilung A: Paläozoologie—Stratigraphie 213: 115–141.

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