Chrysididae

 Hedychridium ardens, copyright Arnstein Staverløkk.

Belongs within: Aculeata.
Contains: Chrysis, Ellampus, Hedychrum.

The Chrysididae, cuckoo wasps, are a group of parasitoid and cleptoparasitic wasps in which the terminal metasomal segments form a telescopic tube that is usually concealed by the preceding six or fewer terga (Naumann 1991). Members of the Chrysidinae are heavily sclerotised and brightly metallic in coloration, and have the underside of the metasoma flattened, allowing them to roll into a ball when threatened. Chrysidinae are cleptoparasites in the nests of Apoidea and Vespidae (Naumann 1991). The metasoma has at most four externally visible tergites in males and three in females, whereas other subfamilies have more in both sexes.

<==Chrysididae [Chrysidides, Cleptidae]
    |--CleptinaeB03
    |    |--Heterocoelia Dahlb. 1854B03
    |    |    `--*H. nigriventrisB03
    |    `--Cleptes Latreille 1802PK17, B03
    |         |--*C. semiauratusB03 [=Ichneumon semiauratusL02]
    |         |--C. afra Lucas 1849E12
    |         |--C. alienusB11
    |         |--C. elegans Mocsáry in Mocsáry & Szépligeti 1901MS01
    |         |--C. nitidulusMS01
    |         |--C. pallipesR26
    |         `--C. splendensR26
    `--+--AmiseginaeB11
       |    |--MyrmecomimesisN91
       |    |--MesitiopterusRD77
       |    |--Bupon pashoanusB11
       |    `--AmisegaB11
       |         |--A. flavicrusB11
       |         `--A. similisB11
       `--ChrysidinaeB11
            |    i. s.: PrimeuchroeusN91
            |           Praestochrysis luscaN91
            |           Chrysogona Förster 1853B03
            |             |--*C. gracillimaB03
            |             `--C. pumila Klug 1845 [incl. Chrysis assimilis Dahlb. 1854 (preoc.), Chrysogona assimilis]B03
            |           Euchroeus Latr. 1809B03
            |             |--*E. purpuratusB03
            |             |--E. cupreiventris Cam. 1902B03
            |             `--E. sexdentatus [=Chrysis (Euchraeus) sexdentata]G20
            |--Allocoelia [Allocoeliini]B11
            |    `--A. capensisB11
            `--+--+--ChrysidiniB11
               |  |    |--ChrysisPK17
               |  |    |--Chrysura pacificaB11
               |  |    `--Stilbum Spinola 1806 non Tode 1790 (ICBN)B11, B03
               |  |         |--*S. cyanurum (Först. 1771)B03 (see below for synonymy)
               |  |         `--S. nobile [=Chrysis (Stilbum) nobile]K18
               |  `--Parnopes Latreille 1796PK17, B03 [Parnopinae, Parnopini]
               |       |--*P. carneaB03 [=Chrysis carneaL02]
               |       |--P. chrysoprasinusBM76
               |       |--P. concinnusE66
               |       |--P. edwardsiiBM76
               |       |--P. fischeriB11
               |       |--P. fulvicornisBM76
               |       |    |--P. f. fulvicornisE66
               |       |    `--P. f. atlanticusE66
               |       |--P. grandiorPK17
               |       |--P. popoviiMS01
               |       `--P. viridis Brullé 1846B03
               `--Elampini [Ellampinae]B11
                    |--EllampusPK17
                    |--HolophrysB03
                    |--PhiloctetesB03
                    |--HedychrumB03
                    |--Holopyga Dahlb. 1854B03
                    |    |--*H. ventralisB03
                    |    |--H. amoenulaMS01
                    |    |--H. chrysonotaBM76
                    |    |--H. coriaceaMS01
                    |    |--H. cupreata Nurse 1902B03
                    |    |--H. gloriosaMS01
                    |    |--H. indica Mocsáry 1889B03
                    |    `--H. nursei Bingham 1903B03
                    `--Hedychridium Ab. de Perrin 1879B03
                         |--*H. analeB03
                         |--H. ardens (Coquebert 1801)K08 [=Chrysis ardensB03]
                         |--H. integrumE66
                         |--H. minutum (Lepel. 1806) [=Hedychrum minutum]B03
                         |--H. perversum Nurse 1902B03
                         |--H. rosaeBM76
                         |--H. rugosum (Smith 1852) [=Hedychrum rugosum, Holopyga rugosa]B03
                         |--H. selectum Nurse 1902B03
                         `--H. wroughtoni du Buysson 1896B03
Chrysididae incertae sedis:
  Neochrysis panamensisBM76
  Trichrysis cyaneaBM76
  CeratochrysisBM76
  PseudolopygaBM76
  Argochrysis armillaJB13
  HolochrysisR70
  Loboscelidia [Loboscelidiidae, Loboscelidiinae]N91
  Dahurochrysis veta Rasnitsyn 1990RJ93
  Hypocleptes rasnitsyniP92
  Protamisega khatangaP92
  Procleptes carpenteriP92
  Protochrysidis succinalisP92
  Palaeochrum diversum Krombein 1986P92
  Protadelphe aenea Krombein 1986P92

*Stilbum cyanurum (Först. 1771)B03 [=Chrysis cyanuraB03; incl. C. amethystina Fabr. 1775B03, Stilbum cyanurum var. amethystinumB03, S. splendidum Spinola 1806B03, Chrysis (Stilbum) splendidaG20, S. cyanurum var. splendidumB03]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera vol. 2. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B11] Brothers, D. J. 2011. A new Late Cretaceous family of Hymenoptera, and phylogeny of the Plumariidae and Chrysidoidea (Aculeata). ZooKeys 130: 515–542.

[E66] Evans, H. E. 1966. The Comparative Ethology and Evolution of the Sand Wasps. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[JB13] Johnson, B. R., M. L. Borowiec, J. C. Chiu, E. K. Lee, J. Atallah & P. S. Ward. 2013. Phylogenomics resolves evolutionary relationships among ants, bees, and wasps. Current Biology 23: 2058–2062.

[K08] Klaus, D. 2008. Triungulinus-Aggregationen von Meloë proscarabaeus L.—Beobachtungen aus Sachsen-Anhalt und Sachsen (Insecta, Coleoptera, Meloidae). Mauritiana 20 (2): 371–380.

[K18] Kohl, F. F. 1918. Die Hautflügergruppe “Sphecinae”. IV. Teil. Die natürliche Gattung Sceliphron Klug (Pelopoeus Latr.). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museum in Wien 32: 1–171.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[N91] Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 867–959. Melbourne University Press.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *