Chrysobalanales

Hirtella rugosa, copyright Smithsonian Institution.

Belongs within: Malpighiales.

The Chrysobalanales (or Chrysobalanaceae sensu lato) have historically been recognised as a pantropical group of trees, shrubs and lianas with simple, entire leaves and obliquely monosymmetric flowers. The Chrysobalanaceae have strongly lenticillate twigs and two-ranked, often short-petiolate leaves.

<==Chrysobalanales
    |  i. s.: HungaH03
    |--+--TrigoniaceaeXR12
    |  |    |--HumbertodendronT00
    |  |    |--TrigoniastrumXR12
    |  |    `--Trigonia Aubl. 1775KC01
    |  `--DichapetalaceaeXR12
    |       |--StephanopodiumT00
    |       |--Tapura ivorenseCBH93
    |       `--Dichapetalum Thouars 1806H84
    |            |--*D. madagascarienseH84
    |            |--D. borneense [=D. papuanum ssp. borneense]H84
    |            |--D. papuanum (Becc.) Boerl. 1890 [=Chailletia papuana Becc. 1877; incl. D. australianum White 1942]H84
    |            `--D. zenkeriXR12
    `--+--Euphronia [Euphroniaceae]XR12
       |    `--E. guianensisXR12
       `--ChrysobalanaceaeXR12
            |  i. s.: Couepia longipendulaK06
            |         Parinari nondaB00
            |         Maranthes corymbosaB00
            |--Atuna racemosaXR12, WM09
            `--+--Chrysobalanus icacoXR12
               `--+--Licania ternatensisXR12, SWK87
                  `--HirtellaXR12
                       |--H. bicornisWM09
                       `--H. rugosaSWK87

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[H84] Hewson, H. J. 1984. Dichapetalaceae. In: George, A. S. (eds) Flora of Australia vol. 22. Rhizophorales to Celastrales pp. 216–219. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[K06] Kwiecinski, G. G. 2006. Phyllostomus discolor. Mammalian Species 801: 1–11.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853–3858.

[XR12] Xi, Z., B. R. Ruhfel, H. Schaefer, A. M. Amorim, M. Sugumaran, K. J. Wurdack, P. K. Endress, M. L. Matthews, P. F. Stevens, S. Mathews & C. C. Davis. 2012. Phylogenomics and a posteriori data partitioning resolve the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation Malpighiales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (43): 17519–17524.

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