Chrysomelidae

Bloody-nosed beetle Timarcha tenebricosa, copyright Charles J. Sharp.

Belongs within: Phytophaga.
Contains: Donaciinae, Hispinae, Criocerinae, Sagrinae, Bruchidae, Galerucinae, Chrysomelini, Cassidinae, Eumolpinae, Lamprosomatinae, Cryptocephalini, Clytrini, Chlamisini.

The Chrysomelidae, leaf beetles, are a cosmopolitan family of beetles that mostly feed on living plant tissue. Adults feed externally whereas larvae may feed either externally or internally. Chrysomelids are highly varied in external appearance but are united by broad fusion of the anterior apodemes in the male genitalia (Riley et al. 2002). The Bruchidae, bean weevils, have often been treated as a separate family but are phylogenetically nested within the Chrysomelidae.

Other subgroups of the Chrysomelidae include the Chrysomelinae, generally ovate beetles characterised by a truncate clypeus whose larvae feed externally and are often armed with repugnatorial glands. Timarcha is a distinctive chrysomeline genus, found in the Mediterranean region and western North America, of dark-coloured, flightless species with a reduced metasternum (Riley et al. 2002). The Cryptocephalinae usually have a strongly hypognathous head that is deeply inserted into the prothorax. The Spilopyrinae are a small group of Australasian and South American beetles that were until recently included in the subfamily Eumolpinae.

<==Chrysomelidae (see below for synonymy)
    |--+--CriocerinaeMW15
    |  `--+--SagrinaeRC02
    |     `--BruchidaeMW15
    `--+--+--GalerucinaeMW15
       |  `--ChrysomelinaeMW15
       |       |  i. s.: Sterromela trimaculataLB91
       |       |         OrinaRD77
       |       |--ChrysomeliniMW15
       |       `--Timarcha Latreille 1829 [Timarchini]RC02
       |            |  i. s.: T. affinisR26
       |            |         T. coriariaR26
       |            |         T. intricataRC02
       |            |         T. pratensisR26
       |            |         T. punica Lucas 1847E12
       |            |         T. tenebricosa (Fabricius 1775)B14
       |            |--T. (Timarcha) [incl. Timarchostoma Motschulsky 1860)RC02
       |            |--T. (Americanotimarcha Jolivet 1948)RC02
       |            `--T. (Metallotimarcha Motschulsky 1860)RC02
       `--+--CassidinaeMW15
          `--+--SpilopyraB14 [SpilopyrinaeRC02]
             |    `--S. sumptuosa Baly 1860B14
             `--+--EumolpinaeRC02
                `--+--LamprosomatinaeRC02
                   `--Cryptocephalinae [Camptosomata, Clytrinae]MW15
                        |  i. s.: AporoceraZS10
                        |         Fulcidax monstrosa (Fabricius 1798)B14
                        |         LeasiaLB91
                        |         LachnabothraQI93
                        |         PrasonotusQI93
                        |         LoxopleurusB70
                        |--CryptocephaliniSW07
                        |--ClytriniSW07
                        `--ChlamisiniRC02
Chrysomelidae incertae sedis:
  Pseudomegamerus grandisGE05, P02
  Eucolaspis brunneaWFS04
  Oreina cacaliaeAM07
  Arnomus brouniT27
  ProtoscelisGE05
  ProtosceloidesGE05
  Eurydemus oculatus Chap. 1879G89
  PhysimeraDL99
  Cheilotoma musciformisF05
    |--C. m. musciformisF05
    `--C. m. hispanica Medvedev 2004F05
  Stylosomus flavusC01
  Xenomela heydeniC01
  ParopsidesC01
    |--P. duodecimpustulatusC01
    `--P. nigrofasciatus Jac. 1888F89
  Sternoplatys weisei Csiki 1901C01
  Malacosoma Chv. 1846 [incl. Exocera]FS90
    |--M. collarisC01
    `--M. detritum Fab. 1801 [incl. M. guadeloupense, M. pallidicorne]FS90
  Pallasia absinthiiC01
  Ochrosis salicariaeC01
  Platymela sticticollisB14
  DonaciinaeRC02
  ‘Aletes’ Chapuis 1874 nec Rafinesque 1815 nec Carpenter 1857N47
  Oxygona Chv. 1847FS90
    `--O. pallens Fab. 1792 [incl. O. modesta]FS90
  Pseudodisonycha turquinensis Blake 1956B56
  MegistopsB37
    |--M. adultaB37
    |--M. fictorB37
    |--M. lugubrinaB37
    |--M. ornatusB37
    |--M. pretiosusB37
    |--M. quattuornotataB37
    |--M. rubropustulataB37
    `--M. tabebuiae Blake 1937B37
  Paratrikona Spaeth 1923B37
    |--P. lerouxi [=Trikona lerouxi]B37
    |--P. ovata Blake 1938B38
    |--P. turrifera [=Trikona turrifera]B37
    `--P. turritella Blake 1937B37
  Batonota Hope 1839B37
  Akantaka Maulik 1916B37
  Trikona Maulik 1916B37
    `--T. humeralisB37
  Elytrogona nigrodorsata Blake 1937B37
  ChalcosicyaB38
    |--C. costata Blake 1938B38
    |--C. ditrichota Blake 1938B38
    |--C. maestrensisB38
    |--C. nanaB38
    `--C. rotunda Blake 1938B38
  AnisoderaP92
  CriocerinaP92
  ElectrolemaP92
  HadroscelusP92
  InclususP92
  OposispaP92
  ProtanisoderaP92
  SucinagoniaP92
  Profidia Gresset 1963P92
    `--*P. nitida Gresset 1963P92
  Homophyla Har. 1877FS90
    `--H. krugi Weise 1885FS90
  Melanispa Baly 1858FS90
    `--M. truncata Baly 1858FS90
  Selenis Hope 1839FS90
    `--S. spinifex Linné 1763 [incl. S. cerastes]FS90
  Omoplata Hope 1840FS90
    `--O. distincta Boh. 1854FS90
  Anomalonyx Weise 1903BP02
  HispinaeMT11
  Augomela hypochalceaB90

Chrysomelidae [Alticidae, Camptosomes, Cassididae, Chlamydidae, Clythridae, Clytridae, Cryptocephalidae, Cryptostomes, Cyclica, Donaciidae, Eupodes, Fulcidacidae, Galerucidae, Halticidae, Lamprosomatidae, Lamprosomidae, Megascelidae, Megascelididae, Mesomphaliidae, Synetidae]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AM07] Acosta, L. E., & G. Machado. 2007. Diet and foraging. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 309–338. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[B90] Blackburn, T. 1890. Notes on Australian Coleoptera, with descriptions of new species. Part V. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (4): 1247–1276.

[B37] Blake, D. H. 1937. Ten new species of West Indian Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 39 (4): 67–78.

[B38] Blake, D. H. 1938. Eight new species of West Indian Chrysomelidae. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (2): 44–52.

[B56] Blake, D. H. 1956. Three new Neotropical flea beetles. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (5): 142–144.

[BP02] Bologna, M. A., & J. D. Pinto. 2002. The Old World genera of Meloidae (Coleoptera): a key and synopsis. Journal of Natural History 36 (17): 2013–2102.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B70] Britton, E. B. 1970. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 495–621. Melbourne University Press.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[DL99] Dyer, L. A., & D. K. Letourneau. 1999. Relative strengths of top-down and bottom-up forces in a tropical forest community. Oecologia 119: 265–274.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F89] Fairmaire, L. 1889. Coléoptères de l’intérieur de la Chine. 5e partie. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 5–84.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[FS90] Fleutiaux, E., & A. Sallé. 1890. Liste des coléoptères de la Guadeloupe et descriptions d’espèces nouvelles. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 351–484.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso “Esploratore” dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[MW15] McKenna, D. D., A. L. Wild, K. Kanda, C. L. Bellamy, R. G. Beutel, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, M. A. Ivie, M. L. Jameson, R. A. B. Leschen, A. E. Marvaldi, J. V. McHugh, A. F. Newton, J. A. Robertson, M. K. Thayer, M. F. Whiting, J. F. Lawrence, A. Ślipiński, D. R. Maddison & B. D. Farrell. 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology 40 (4): 835–880.

[MT11] Medvedev, L. N., & H. Takizawa. 2011. Leaf beetles of the subfamily Eumolpinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Bali, Indonesia. Serangga 16 (1): 7–27.

[N47] Newell, I. M. 1947. A systematic and ecological study of the Halacaridae of eastern North America. Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection 10 (3): 1–232.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[P02] Ponomarenko, A. G. 2002. Superorder Scarabaeidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Coleoptera Linné, 1758. The beetles. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 164–176. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[QI93] Quicke, D. L. J., & S. N. Ingram. 1993. Braconine wasps of Australia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 33 (1): 299–336.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RC02] Riley, E. G., S. M. Clark, R. W. Flowers & A. J. Gilbert. 2002. Chrysomelidae Latreille 1802. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 617–691. CRC Press.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[SW07] Schöller, M., & V. Witte. 2007. A review of the genus Clytrasoma Jacoby 1908, with description of a new species collected within a Camponotus sp. ant-nest (Insecta: Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae; Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (1): 51–61.

[T27] Thomson, G. M. 1927. The pollination of New Zealand flowers by birds and insects. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 106–125.

[WFS04] Winks, C. J., S. V. Fowler & L. A. Smith. 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61–72.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

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