Chrysopidae

Dictyochrysa peterseni, copyright Shaun Winterton.

Belongs within: Neoneuroptera.
Contains: Leucochrysini, Chrysopini, Belonopterygini.

The Chrysopidae, green lacewings, are a group of lightly-built lacewings with elongate, actively hunting larvae. They are divided between the subfamilies Apochrysinae, Nothochrysinae and Chrysopinae with the Apochrysinae distinguished by the absence of the basal subcostal cross-vein and intramedian cell from the fore wing (New 1991).

Characters (from Zborowski & Storey 2010): Body colour usually green, eyes metallic-coloured; antennae thin, filiform, tapering, longer than half length of forewing; wings with more vertical than longitudinal veins, outlining numerous, almost vertical, rectangular cells, which are usually clear.

<==Chrysopidae
    |--ApochrysinaeWHW10
    |    |--Oligochrysa Esben-Petersen 1914N80
    |    |    `--O. lutea (Walker 1853) (see below for synonymy)N80
    |    `--Synthochrysa Needham 1909N80
    |         |--*S. stigma [=Hemerobius stigma]N80
    |         `--S. evanida [=Apochrysa evanida]N80
    `--+--Nothochrysinae [Dictyochrysinae, Nothochrysini, Nothochrysinos]WHW10
       |    |--Triplochrysa Kimmins 1952N80
       |    |    |--*T. pallida Kimmins 1952N80
       |    |    `--T. kimminsi New 1980N80
       |    |--Dictyochrysa Esben-Petersen 1917N80
       |    |    |--*D. fulva Esben-Petersen 1917N80
       |    |    |--D. latifascia Kimmins 1952N80
       |    |    `--D. peterseni Kimmins 1952N80
       |    |--Nothochrysa californicaWHW10
       |    `--Pimachrysa nigraWHW10
       `--ChrysopinaeWHW10
            |  i. s.: Sencera Navás 1924N80
            |           |--*S. scioneuraN80
            |           |--S. anomalaN80
            |           |--S. exquisitaN80
            |           |--S. feaeN80
            |           `--S. fezzaninaN80
            |         Nothancyla Navás 1910N80
            |           `--*N. verreauxi Navás 1910N80
            |         Ankylopteryx Brauer 1864N80
            |           |--*A. venusta [=Chrysopa venusta]N80
            |           |--A. basalis Kimmins 1952N80
            |           |--A. immaculata Brauer 1864N80
            |           |--A. pallida Banks 1910N80
            |           |--A. picilabris Kimmins 1952N80
            |           `--A. rieki New 1980N80
            |         Calochrysa Banks 1943N80
            |           `--*C. extranea (Esben-Petersen 1917) [=Chrysopa extranea]N80
            |         Glenochrysa Esben-Petersen 1920N80
            |           |--*G. typica Esben-Petersen 1920N80
            |           |--G. franzeni Kimmins 1952N80
            |           |--G. irregularis (Banks 1910) [=Chrysopa irregularis]N80
            |           |--G. opposita (McLachlan 1863) [=Chrysopa opposita]N80
            |           |--G. regularis (Banks 1910) [=Chrysopa regularis]N80
            |           |--G. splendidaN80
            |           `--G. tillyardi New 1980N80
            |--ChrysopiniFP01
            `--BelonopteryginiN80
Chrysopidae incertae sedis:
  MesypochrysaP02
    |--M. intermediaP02
    `--M. reductaP02
  LeucochrysiniFP01
  MalladaMC13
    |--M. signatusMC13
    `--M. traviatusZS10
  Paralembochrysa splendida Nel, Delclòs & Hutin 2005P-FD12
  AnomalochrysaN91
  DichochrysaA02
  Hypochrysa elegansVM20
  Nineta pallidaVM20
  Chrysotropia ciliataVM20
  Cunctochrysa albolineataVM20
  PseudomalladaVM20
    |--P. flavifronsVM20
    `--+--P. prasinusVM20
       `--P. ventralisVM20
  Mesochrysopinae [Mesochrysopidae, Mesochrysopsidae]EWB18
    |--Aristenymphes Panfilov 1980RY02
    `--MesochrysopaYM12
  CorydasialinaeEWB18

Oligochrysa lutea (Walker 1853) [=Chrysopa lutea, Apochrysa lutea, Synthochrysa lutea; incl. *Oligochrysa gracilis Esben-Petersen 1914]N80

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A02] Aspöck, U. 2002. Phylogeny of the Neuropterida (Insecta: Holometabola). Zoologica Scripta 31: 51–55.

[EWB18] Engel, M. S., S. L. Winterton & L. C. V. Breitkreuz. 2018. Phylogeny and evolution of Neuropterida: where have wings of lace taken us? Annual Review of Entomology 63: 531–551.

[FP01] Freitas, S. de, & N. D. Penny. 2001. The green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) of Brazilian agro-ecosystems. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 52: 245–395.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[N80] New, T. R. 1980. A revision of the Australian Chrysopidae (Insecta: Neuroptera). Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 77: 1–143.

[N91] New, T. R. 1991. Neuroptera (lacewings). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 525–542. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P-FD12] Pérez-de la Fuente, R., X. Delclòs, E. Peñalver, M. Speranza, J. Wierzchos, C. Ascaso & M. S. Engel. 2012. Early evolution and ecology of camouflage in insects. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (52): 21414–21419.

[P02] Ponomarenko, A. G. 2002. Superorder Myrmeleontidea Latreille, 1802 (=Neuropteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P. & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 176–189. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[RY02] Ren D. & Yin J.-C. 2002. A new genus and new species of lacewings in the Jurassic of China (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontoidea). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 27 (2): 269–273.

[VM20] Vasilikopoulos, A., B. Misof, K. Meusemann, D. Lieberz, T. Flouri, R. G. Beutel, O. Niehuis, T. Wappler, J. Rust, R. S. Peters, A. Donath, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Mayer, D. Bartel, A. Böhm, S. Liu, P. Kapli, C. Greve, J. E. Jepson, X. Liu, X. Zhou, H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck. 2020. An integrative phylogenomic approach to elucidate the evolutionary history and divergence times of Neuropterida (Insecta: Holometabola). BMC Evolutionary Biology 20: 64.

[WHW10] Winterton, S. L., N. B. Hardy & B. M. Wiegmann. 2010. On wings of lace: phylogeny and Bayesian divergence time estimates of Neuropterida (Insecta) based on morphological and molecular data. Systematic Entomology 35: 349–378.

[YM12] Yang, Q., V. N. Makarkin, S. L. Winterton, A. V. Khramov & D. Ren. 2012. A remarkable new family of Jurassic insects (Neuroptera) with primitive wing venation and its phylogenetic position in Neuropterida. PLoS One 7 (9): e44762.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P. & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

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