Chrysopini

 Chrysopa perla, copyright James K. Lindsey.

Belongs within: Chrysopidae.
Contains: Chrysopodes (Chrysopodes), Ceraeochrysa.

The Chrysopini are a group of green lacewings characterised by having antennae shorter than the wings. Some can emit a foul odor in self-defense. Past classifications have placed most or all species in the genus Chrysopa; more recent classifications restrict this genus to species from the Holarctic region. Separation of genera, nevertheless, largely depends on examination of the male genitalia (Freitas & Penny 2001).

Characters (from Freitas & Penny 2001): Adults relatively thin-bodied; antennae shorter than wings; antennomeres longer than wide beyond the first few basal segments; forewing pterostigmal area completely pale; outer gradate series of crossveins at broad angle (more than 60°) to pseudomedial vein. Larvae free-living on vegetation.

<==Chrysopini
    |--+--Peyerimhoffina gracilisVM20
    |  `--Chrysoperla Steinmann 1964VM20, FP01
    |       |--C. agilisHR11
    |       |--C. carneaFP01
    |       |--C. defreitasi Brooks 1994MF05
    |       |--C. externa (Hagen 1861) (see below for synonymy)MF05
    |       `--C. raimundoi de Freitas & Penny 2001FP01
    `--Chrysopa Leach 1815VM20, N80
         |  i. s.: C. adamsi New 1980N80
         |         C. alcines Banks 1940N80
         |         C. atalotis Banks 1910N80
         |         C. australis New 1980N80
         |         C. basalis Walker 1853 (see below for synonymy)N80
         |         C. boninensisN80
         |         C. californicaRD77
         |         C. cardaleae New 1980N80
         |         C. carneaFM80
         |         C. conformis (Rambur 1842) [=Hemerobius conformis]FP01
         |         C. cubanaVC07
         |         C. darwini Banks 1940N80
         |         C. dispar Kimmins 1952 [=C. (Anisochrysa) dispar]N80
         |         C. downesiFM80
         |         C. edwardsi Banks 1940 [incl. C. edwardsi puncticollis Banks 1940]N80
         |         C. eremita Kimmins 1955 [=C. (Apertochrysa) eremita]N80
         |         C. flavaRD77
         |         C. furciferaN80
         |         C. galapagoensisPP72
         |         C. innotata Walker 1853 [incl. C. assimilata Navás 1934]N80
         |         C. italotis Banks 1910N80
         |         C. jocaste Banks 1940N80
         |         C. maculithorax Kimmins 1936N80
         |         C. nigripilosaPP72
         |         C. oceanica Walker 1853N80
         |         C. oculataFP01
         |         C. otalatis Banks 1910N80
         |         C. personata Navás 1934N80
         |         C. pulchrina Tjeder 1966N80
         |         C. punctithorax New 1980N80
         |         C. ramburi Schneider 1851 (see below for synonymy)N80
         |         C. satilota Banks 1910 [=C. (Chrysoperla) satilota]N80
         |         C. scelestesN80
         |         C. septempunctataK01
         |         C. sequens Banks 1943N80
         |         C. signata Schneider 1851 [incl. C. alcatoa Banks 1943]N80
         |         C. signatipennis Banks 1910N80
         |         C. slossonaeGE05
         |         C. traviata Banks 1940N80
         |         C. triactinata New 1980N80
         |         C. tripunctata McLachlan 1867 [=C. (Anisochrysa) tripunctata, Nothochrysa tripunctata]N80
         |         C. vulgarisM47
         |         C. walkeriK01
         |--C. pallensVM20
         `--+--C. phyllochromaVM20
            `--+--*C. perla (Linnaeus 1758)N80, VM20, L58 [=Hemerobius perlaN80]
               `--+--C. dorsalisVM20
                  `--C. formosaVM20
Chrysopini incertae sedis:
  UnglaMF05
    |--U. argentina (Navás 1911) (see below for synonymy)MF05
    `--U. binaria (Navás 1922) [=Chrysopa binaria]MF05
  PlesiochrysaFP01
    |--P. alytos de Freitas & Penny 2001FP01
    |--P. brasiliensis (Schneider 1851)FP01
    |--P. elongata (Navás 1913)FP01
    `--P. ramburiMC13
  Chrysopodes Navás 1913FP01
    |--C. (Chrysopodes)FP01
    `--C. (Neosuarius) Adams & Penny 1987FP01
         |--C. (N.) collaris (Schneider 1851)FP01
         |--C. (N.) divisa (Walker 1853)FP01
         |--C. (N.) karinae de Freitas & Penny 2001FP01
         `--C. (N.) porterina (Navás 1910) [=Chrysopa porterina, Chrysopa porteri (l. c.)]MF05
  CeraeochrysaFP01

Chrysopa basalis Walker 1853 [=C. (Anisochrysa) basalis, Mallada basalis; incl. C. latotalis Banks 1910, C. microphya McLachlan 1883, C. olatatis Banks 1910]N80

Chrysoperla externa (Hagen 1861) [=Chrysopa externa; incl. Chrysopa lanata var. basalis Navás 1920 non C. basalis Walker 1853, Chrysopa lanata var. climacia Navás 1917, Chrysopa graciana Navás 1919, Chrysoperla gracina (l. c.), Chrysopa lanata var. gradata Navás 1919, Chrysopa lanata (Banks 1910), Chrysopa lanata var. picta Navás 1932, Chrysopa lanata var. platensis Navás 1915, Chrysopa plorabunda Firsch 1856, Chrysopa lanata var. unita Navás 1919]MF05

Chrysopa ramburi Schneider 1851 [incl. C. deutera Navás 1914, C. jaluitana Kempny 1904, C. neutra Navás 1910, C. notosticta Navás 1914, C. reaumeri Navás 1914, C. vicina Kempny 1904]N80

Ungla argentina (Navás 1911) [=Hypocrhysa argentina, Chrysopa argentina, Suarius argentinus; incl. Ungla annulata Navás 1914]MF05

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[FP01] Freitas, S. de, & N. D. Penny. 2001. The green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) of Brazilian agro-ecosystems. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 52: 245–395.

[FM80] Futuyma, D. J., & G. C. Mayer. 1980. Non-allopatric speciation in animals. Systematic Zoology 29 (3): 254–271.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HR11] Heraty, J., F. Ronquist, J. M. Carpenter, D. Hawks, S. Schulmeister, A. P. Dowling, D. Murray, J. Munro, W. C. Wheeler, N. Schiff & M. Sharkey. 2011. Evolution of the hymenopteran megaradiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60: 73–88.

[K01] Klapálek, F. 1901. Neuropteroidák [Neuropteroiden]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 203–221. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[M47] Mayr, E. 1947. Ecological factors in speciation. Evolution 1: 263–288.

[MF05] Monserrat, V. J., & S. de Freitas. 2005. Contribución al conocimiento de los crisópidos de Coquimbo, Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego (Argentina, Chile) (Insecta, Neuroptera, Chrysopidae). Graellsia 61 (2): 163–179.

[N80] New, T. R. 1980. A revision of the Australian Chrysopidae (Insecta: Neuroptera). Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 77: 1–143.

[PP72] Parkin, P., D. T. Parkin, A. W. Ewing & H. A. Ford. 1972. A report on the arthropods collected by the Edinburgh University Galapagos Islands expedition, 1968. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (2): 100–107.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[VM20] Vasilikopoulos, A., B. Misof, K. Meusemann, D. Lieberz, T. Flouri, R. G. Beutel, O. Niehuis, T. Wappler, J. Rust, R. S. Peters, A. Donath, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Mayer, D. Bartel, A. Böhm, S. Liu, P. Kapli, C. Greve, J. E. Jepson, X. Liu, X. Zhou, H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck. 2020. An integrative phylogenomic approach to elucidate the evolutionary history and divergence times of Neuropterida (Insecta: Holometabola). BMC Evolutionary Biology 20: 64.

[VC07] Villanueva, R. T., & C. C. Childers. 2007. Insect predators of eriophyids on Florida citrus including a new predacious Lepidoptera and two cecidomyiids. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 391–395. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

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