Austrochthonius sp., copyright Kristi Ellingsen.

Belongs within: Pseudoscorpiones.
Contains: Tyrannochthoniini.

The Chthoniidae are a group of pseudoscorpions characterised by differing number of segments in the anterior and posterior pairs of legs (five post-coxal segments in legs I and II vs six in legs III and IV) (Muchmore 1990). Three families have been recognised within the superfamily Chthonioidea, the Chthoniidae, Lechytiidae and Tridenchthoniidae, but molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the first is paraphyletic to the latter two (Murienne et al. 2008).

<==Chthoniidae [Chthoniinea, Chthonioidea, Heterosphyronida]
    |    |--Afrochthonius godfreyiMHG08
    |    `--+--PseudotyrannochthoniusMHG08
    |       `--SelachochthoniusMHG08
         |--Chthonius Koch 1843MHG08, H09
         |    |  i. s.: C. californicusS62
         |    |         C. coecus Packard 1884HM06
         |    |         C. mengei Beier 1937S93
         |    |         C. rayiP-C06
         |    |         C. tetrachelatusM90
         |    |--C. (Chthonius)J97
         |    |    |--C. (C.) ischnocheles (Hermann 1804) (see below for synonymy)J97
         |    |    `--C. (C.) tenuis Koch 1873J97
         |    |--C. (Ephippiochthonius) kewi Gabbutt 1966J97
         |    `--C. (Globochthonius) globifer Simon 1879J97
            |  `--KleptochthoniusMHG08
               |  `--+--DrepanochthoniusMHG08
               |     `--Austrochthonius Chamberlin 1929MHG08, HM06 (see below for synonymy)
               |          |--*A. chilensis (Chamberlin 1923) [=Chthonius chilensis]HM06
               |          |    |--A. c. chilensisHM06
               |          |    |--A. c. magalhanicusHM06
               |          |    `--A. c. transversusHM06
               |          |--A. argentinaeHM06
               |          |--A. australisHM06
               |          |--A. bolivianusHM06
               |          |--A. cavicolaHM06
               |          |--A. easti Harvey 1991H91
               |          |--A. iguazuensisHM06
               |          |--A. insularisHM06
               |          |--A. mordaxHM06
               |          |--A. muchmorei Harvey & Mould 2006 (see below for synonymy)HM06
               |          |--A. paraguayensisHM06
               |          |--A. parvus (Mello-Leitão 1939) [=*Cecoditha parva]HM06
               |          |--A. persimilisHM06
               |          |--A. rapaxHM06
               |          |--A. semiserratusHM06
               |          |--A. strigosus Harvey & Mould 2006HM06
               |          |--A. tullgreni (Beier 1931) [=*Paraustrochthonius tullgreni]HM06
               |          `--A. zealandicusHM06
               |               |--A. z. zealandicusHM06
               |               `--A. z. obscurusHM06
               `--+--+--Sathrochthonius insulanusMHG08
                  |  `--Lechytia [Lechytiidae, Lechytiini]MHG08
                  |       |--L. chthoniiformis (Balzan 1887)M01
                  |       |--L. hoffiMHG08
                  |       |--L. natalensisM01
                  |       |--L. sakagamiiM01
                  |       |--L. tertiariaP92
                  |       `--L. trinitatis Beier 1970J97
                  `--+--Tridenchthoniidae [Dithidae, Dithinae, Tridenchthoniinae]M90
                     |    |--AnaulacodithellaMHG08
                     |    |--Verrucaditha spinosaM90
                     |    |--TridenchthoniusM90
                     |    |--Chelignathus kochii (Menge 1854)S93
                     |    |--Cryptoditha elegans (Beier 1931)M01
                     |    `--Pycnodithella abyssinica (Beier 1944) [=Verrucadithella abyssinica]J97
                          |--P. biseriatus Mahnert 2001M01
                          |--P. brasiliensisM01
                          |--P. gracilimanus Mahnert 2001M01
                          |--P. heterodentatusM01
                          |--P. homodentatus Chamberlin 1929J97
                          |--P. insularisM01
                          |--P. orthodactylusM01
                          |--P. pulchellusM01
                          |--P. ricardoi Mahnert 2001M01
                          |--P. simoniM01
                          |--P. squamosusL88
                          |--P. strinatii Beier 1969M01
                          `--P. tuxeniM01
Chthoniidae incertae sedis:
    |--K. amplus Schuster 1962S62
    |--K. paludisS62
    |--K. spingolus Schuster 1962S62
    `--K. stanfordianus Chamberlin 1929S62

Austrochthonius Chamberlin 1929MHG08, HM06 [incl. Cecoditha Mello-Leitão 1939HM06, Paraustrochthonius Beier 1931HM06]

Austrochthonius muchmorei Harvey & Mould 2006 [=Chthonius caecus Tullgren 1909 non Simon 1885, Mundochthonius caecus, Sathrochthonius tullgreni Chamberlin 1962 non Paraustrochthonius tullgreni Beier 1931]HM06

Chthonius (Chthonius) ischnocheles (Hermann 1804) [incl. C. orthodactylus (Leach 1817), C. rayi Koch 1873, C. trombidioides (Latreille 1804)]J97

*Type species of generic name indicated


[H91] Harvey, M. S. 1991. The cavernicolous pseudoscorpions (Chelicerata: Pseudoscorpionida) of Cape Range, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 15 (3): 487–502.

[H09] Harvey, M. S. 2009. The first Australasian species of the halophilic pseudoscorpion genus Paraliochthonius (Pseudoscorpiones: Chthoniidae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (3): 329–344.

[HM06] Harvey, M. S., & L. G. Mould. 2006. A new troglomorphic species of Austrochthonius (Pseudoscorpiones: Chthoniidae) from Australia, with remarks on Chthonius caecus. Records of the Western Australian Museum 23 (2): 205–211.

[J97] Judson, M. L. I. 1997. Catalogue of the pseudoscorpion types (Arachnida: Chelonethi) in the Natural History Museum, London. Occasional Papers on Systematic Entomology 11: 1–54.

[L88] Liebherr, J. K. 1988. General patterns in West Indian insects, and graphical biogeographic analysis of some circum-Caribbean Platynus beetles (Carabidae). Systematic Zoology 37 (4): 385–409.

[M01] Mahnert, V. 2001. Cave-dwelling pseudoscorpions (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones) from Brazil. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 108 (1): 95–148.

[M90] Muchmore, W. B. 1990. Pseudoscorpionida. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 503–527. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[MHG08] Murienne, J., M. S. Harvey & G. Giribet. 2008. First molecular phylogeny of the major clades of Pseudoscorpiones (Arthropoda: Chelicerata). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49: 170–184.

[P-C06] Pickard-Cambridge, O. 1906. The wild fauna and flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Arachnida. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Additional Series 5: 53–65.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[S62] Schuster, R. O. 1962. New species of Kewochthonius Chamberlin from California (Arachnida: Chelonethida). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 223–226.

[S93] Selden, P. A. 1993. Arthropoda (Aglaspidida, Pycnogonida and Chelicerata). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 297–320. Chapman & Hall: London.

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