Cibicides lobatulus, copyright Marek Zajaczkowski & Patrycja Jernas.

Belongs within: Planorbulinida.
Contains: Heterolepa.

The Cibicididae are a group of spiral foraminifera known from the Cretaceous to the present. In members of the subfamily Planulininae, the test is free and has a single aperture; in Cibicidinae, the test is attached by its spiral side and some forms have multiple apertures (Loeblich & Tappan 1964b).

Characters (from Loeblich & Tappan 1964b): Test free or attached, trochospiral to nearly planispiral, or later spreading, irregular or cyclical; wall coarsely perforate, radial in structure, septa double (bilamellar); aperture interiomarginal, may extend onto spiral side, and peripheral supplementary apertures may occur.

<==Cibicididae [Cibicidinae, Heterolepidae]
    |  i. s.: Planorbulinoides Cushman 1928LT64b
    |           `--*P. retinaculata (Parker & Jones in Carpenter, Parker & Jones 1862) [=Planorbulina retinaculata]LT64b
    |         Epithemella Sliter 1968HW93
    |         HeterolepaAB19
    |         Anomalinoides Brotzen 1942HW93
    |           |--A. pinguis (Jennings 1936) [=Anomalina pinguis; incl. *Anomalinoides plummerae Brotzen 1942]LT64b
    |           |--A. globosusS05
    |           `--A. macraglabraH90
    |--Dyocibicides Cushman & Valentine 1930B-F08, C40 [incl. Rectocibicidella McLean 1956LT64b]
    |    |--*D. biserialis Cushman & Valentine 1930C40
    |    |--D. robertsi (McLean 1956) [=*Rectocibicidella robertsi]LT64b
    |    `--D. variabilisLJ98
    |--+--Cycloloculina Heron-Allen & Earland 1908B-F08, LT64b [=Cycloloceilina (l. c.)LT64b]
    |  |    |--*C. annulata Heron-Allen & Earland 1908LT64b
    |  |    `--C. miocenicaC40
    |  `--+--Rectocibicides Cushman & Ponton 1932B-F08, C40
    |     |    `--*R. miocenicus Cushman & Ponton 1932C40
    |     `--+--Cibicidella Cushman 1927B-F08, C40
    |        |    `--*C. variabilis (d’Orbigny 1826) [=Truncatulina variabilis]LT64b
    |        `--Cyclocibicides Cushman 1927B-F08, C40
    |             `--*C. vermiculata (d’Orbigny 1826) [=Planorbulina vermiculata]LT64b
    `--Cibicides Monfort 1808B-F08, G86 (see below for synonymy)
         |--*C. refulgens de Montfort 1808 [=*Truncatulina refulgens]LT64b
         |--C. advenumM62
         |--*Craterella’ albescens Dons 1942 [=*Crateriola albescens]LT64b
         |--‘Truncatulina’ boueanaF71
         |--C. collinsiB49
         |--*Polyxenes’ cribratus de Montfort 1808LT64b
         |--C. cygnorum Carter 1964A68
         |--*Soldanina’ exagona Costa 1856LT64b
         |--C. kullenbergiH90
         |--C. lobatulus (Walker & Jacob 1798)C94 [=Truncatulina lobulataBK77, Lobatula lobatulaM08]
         |--C. mediocrisH90
         |--C. neoperforatusH90
         |--C. notocenicusH90
         |--C. novozelandicusH90
         |--C. perforatusH90
         |--C. pseudolobatusS05
         |--*Storilus’ radiatus de Montfort 1808LT64b
         |--C. strelkovi Mikhalevich 1976G86
         |--C. temperataH90
         |--‘Truncatulina’ ungerianaH04
         |--C. variabilisLT64a
         |--*Lobatula’ vulgaris Fleming 1828LT64b
         `--C. wuellerstorfiM12
Nomen nudum: Cibicides molestus Battey 1949B49

Cibicides Monfort 1808C40, G86 [=Cymbicides (l. c.)LT64b, Truncatulina d’Orbigny 1826LT64b; incl. Aristeropora Ehrenberg 1858C40, Craterella Dons 1942 nec Pers. 1794 (ICBN) nec Schrammen 1901 nec Kofoid & Campbell 1929LT64b, Crateriola Strand 1943LT64b, Lobatula Fleming 1828C40, Polyxenes de Montfort 1808LT64b, Soldanina Costa 1856LT64b, Storilus de Montfort 1808LT64b]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AB19] Adl, S. M., D. Bass, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov, S. Agatha, C. Berney, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, P. Cárdenas, I. Čepička, L. Chistyakova, J. del Campo, M. Dunthorn, B. Edvardsen, Y. Eglit, L. Guillou, V. Hampl, A. A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, T. Y. James, A. Karnkowska, S. Karpov, E. Kim, M. Kolisko, A. Kudryavtsev, D. J. G. Lahr, E. Lara, L. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, D. G. Mann, R. Massana, E. A. D. Mitchell, C. Morrow, J. S. Park, J. W. Pawlowski, M. J. Powell, D. J. Richter, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, S. Shimano, F. W. Spiegel, G. Torruella, N. Youssef, V. Zlatogursky & Q. Zhang. 2019. Revisions to the classification, nomenclature, and diversity of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 66: 4–119.

[A68] Albani, A. D. 1968. Recent Foraminiferida of the central coast of New South Wales. AMSA Handbook 1: 1–37.

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[B49] Battey, M. H. 1949. The geology of the Tuakau-Mercer area, Auckland. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 429–455.

[B-F08] BouDagher-Fadel, M. K. 2008. The Cenozoic larger benthic foraminifera: the Palaeogene. Developments in Palaeontology and Stratigraphy 21: 297–418.

[C94] Cedhagen, T. 1994. Taxonomy and biology of Hyrrokkin sarcophaga gen. et sp. n., a parasitic foraminiferan (Rosalinidae). Sarsia 79: 65–82.

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use 3rd ed. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[G86] Golemansky, V. G. 1986. Rhizopoda: Foraminiferida. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 17–20. E. J. Brill/Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[HW93] Hart, M. B., & C. L. Williams. 1993. Protozoa. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 43–70. Chapman & Hall: London.

[H90] Hayward, B. W. 1990. Use of foraminiferal data in analysis of Taranaki Basin, New Zealand. Journal of Foraminiferal Research 20: 71–83.

[LJ98] Li, Q., N. P. James, B. McGowran, Y. Bone & J. Cann. 1998. Synergetic influence of water masses and Kangaroo Island barrier on foraminiferal distribution, Lincoln and Lacepede shelves, South Australia: a synthesis. Alcheringa 22 (2): 153–176.

[LT64a] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964a. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[LT64b] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964b. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 2. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[M12] McGowran, B. 2012. Cenozoic environmental shifts and foraminiferal evolution. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 937–965. Springer.

[M08] McMillan, I. K. 2008. Aragonitic-walled benthic foraminifera (Epistomina) in the Cretaceous ‘mudbelt’ off southern Africa, and postmortem cross-shelf transport of tests. African Natural History 4: 17–24.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[S05] Semeniuk, T. A. 2005. Fossil foraminiferal assemblages from Pleistocene seagrass-bank deposits of the southern Perth Basin, Western Australia, and their palaeotemperature implications. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 177–190.

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