Cichorieae

Twiggy wreath plant Stephanomeria virgata, copyright Noah Elhardt.
Belongs within: Cichorioideae.
Contains: Leontodontinae, Hieracium, Microseridinae, Crepis, Taraxacum.

The Cichorieae are a group of composite-flowered plants bearing flowerheads with all flowers ligulate and stems with milky latex.

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Flowers all ligulate; plants with milky juice; leaves alternate or radial. Flower-heads homogamous, flowers all bisexual, ligules mostly shortly five-toothed at summit and outer ones often radiating; style with plano-convex branches attenuated towards summit, bearing stigmatic papillae on whole of inner side and well-developed connecting hairs on outside down to below place where branches fork; anthers acute or acuminate at base.

<==Cichorieae [Cichoriaceae, Lactuceae, Liguliflorae] PF02
|–+–Microseridinae KJ94
|  `–Stephanomeria [Stephanomeriinae] KJ94
|       |–S. blairii [=Malacothrix blairii, Munzothamnus blairii] H93
|       |–S. cichoriacea H93
|       |–S. diegensis H93
|       |–S. elata H93
|       |–S. exigua H93
|       |    |–S. e. ssp. exigua [incl. S. exigua var. pentachaeta] H93
|       |    |–S. e. ssp. carotifera H93
|       |    |–S. e. ssp. coronaria H93
|       |    |–S. e. ssp. deanei H93
|       |    `–S. e. ssp. macrocarpa H93
|       |–S. lactucina H93
|       |–S. paniculata H93
|       |–S. parryi H93
|       |–S. pauciflora KJ94
|       |    |–S. p. var. pauciflora [incl. S. myrioclada] H93
|       |    `–S. p. var. parishii H93
|       |–S. spinosa [=Lygodesmia spinosa] H93
|       |–S. tenuifolia H93
|       `–S. virgata H93
|            |–S. v. ssp. virgata [incl. S. virgata var. tomentosa] H93
|            `–S. v. ssp. pleurocarpa H93
`–Crepidinae KJ94
|–Crepis BR65
|–Taraxacum BR65
|–Tolpis Adanson 1763 BR65
|    `–T. barbata H93 [incl. T. umbellata Bertoloni 1803 H93, BR65]
|–Chondrilla BR65
|    |–C. juncea BR65
|    `–C. prenanthoides C55a
|–Reichardia Roth. 1787 [incl. Picridium Desfontaines 1799] BR65
|    |–R. intermedia PT98
|    `–R. picroides (Linnaeus) Roth 1787 [incl. Picridium vulgare] BR65
|–Sonchus Linnaeus 1753 BR65, A61
|    |–S. arvensis BR65
|    |–S. asper Hill 1760 BR65 [incl. S. fallax C55b]
|    |–S. grandifolius Kirk 1894 A61
|    |–S. hydrophilus GK00
|    |–S. littoralis (Kirk) Cockayne 1907 (see below for synonymy) ME70
|    |–S. megalocarpus [=S. asper var. megalocarpus Hooker 1860] BR65
|    |–S. nigrum BN99
|    |–S. oleraceus M99 [incl. S. ciliatus C55b, S. laevis C55b]
|    |–S. palustris C55a
|    |–S. tenerrimus C74
|    |    |–S. t. var. tenerrimus C74
|    |    `–S. t. var. perennis C74
|    `–S. vulgaris Ho91
`–Lactuca KJ94
|–L. amorgina S98
|–L. biennis H93
|–L. canadensis H93
|–L. indica MH98
|–L. lessertiana O88
|–L. ludoviciana H93
|–L. muralis C06
|–L. saligna BR65
|–L. sativa KJ94 [=L. scariola var. sativa C55b]
|–L. scariola BR65
|–L. serriola [incl. L. serriola var. integra] H93
|–L. tatarica H93
|    |–L. t. ssp. tatarica H93
|    `–L. t. ssp. pulchella H93
|–L. viminea Hu91
`–L. virosa BR65

Cichorieae incertae sedis:
Leontodontinae BR65
Cichorinae BR65
|–Hedypnois BR65
|    |–H. cretica [incl. H. polymorpha] BR65
|    `–H. rhagadioloides GK00
`–Cichorium BR65
|–C. endiva H93
|–C. intybus BR65
|–C. pumilum PT98 [=C. endivia ssp. pumilum AGF98]
`–C. spinosum PT98
Kirkianella Allan 1961 A61
`–*K. novae-zelandiae (Hooker) Allan 1961 [=Crepis novae-zelandiae Hooker 1864] A61
|–K. n. f. novae-zelandiae [incl. Hieracium fragile] A61
|–K. n. f. glauca Allan 1961 A61
`–K. n. f. minor Allan 1961 A61
Hieracium N10
Scolymus hispanicus S06, PT98
Troximum S06

Sonchus littoralis (Kirk) Cockayne 1907 [=S. oleraceus γ littoralis Kirk 1894, S. asper γ littoralis (Kirk) Kirk 1899] ME70

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AGF98] Abd El-Ghani, M. M., & A. G. Fahmy. 1998. Composition of and changes in the spontaneous flora of Feiran Oasis, S Sinai, Egypt, in the last 60 years. Willdenowia 28: 123–134.

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[BN99] Bungener, P., S. Nussbaum, A. Grub & J. Fuhrer. 1999. Growth response of grassland species to ozone in relation to soil moisture condition and plant strategy. New Phytologist 142: 283–293.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 24 pls.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[Ho91] Hokkanen, H. M. T. 1991. Trap cropping in pest management. Annual Review of Entomology 36: 119–138.

[Hu91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255–260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[KJ94] Kim, K.-J., & R. K. Jansen. 1994. Comparisons of phylogenetic hypotheses among different data sets in dwarf dandelions (Krigia, Asteraceae): additional information from internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Plant Systematics and Evolution 190: 157–185.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[N10] Norrbom, A. L. 2010. Tephritidae (fruit flies, moscas de frutas). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 909–954. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PF02] Panero, J. L., & V. A. Funk. 2002. Toward a phylogenetic subfamilial classification for the Compositae (Asteraceae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 115 (4): 909–922.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[S98] Salmeri, C. 1998. Allium brulloi (Alliaceae), a new species from Astypalea (Aegean Islands, Greece). Willdenowia 28: 69–76.

[S06] Stuckert, T. 1906. Distribución geográfica de la flora Argentina. Géneros de la familia de las compuestas. Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3, 6: 303–309.

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