Cicindelidae

Collyris crassicornis, copyright Ritika.

Belongs within: Geadephaga.
Contains: Distipsidera, Megacephalini, Cicindelini.

The Cicindelidae, tiger beetles, are fast-moving and often brightly coloured predatory beetles. Authors have differed on whether they should be treated as a distinct family or as a subfamily within the ground beetles of the Carabidae. Such disagreements largely hinge on whether they are phylogenetically nested within the latter.

Most members of the Cicindelidae have bulging eyes, as wide or wider across the head than the widest part of the pronotum, but the width across the eyes is narrower than the pronotum in the basal tribe Manticorini. Manticorini are black in coloration and flightless. The Collyridini are an Indo-Australian group of arboreal tiger beetles with an extremely narrow body form.

Characters (from Ball & Bousquet 2001): Head capsule ventrally without antennal grooves; antennal insertions mediad, above and closer together than bases of mandibles; antenna filiform, antennomeres 2–4 not nodose, 2–6 without unusually long setae, with 11 antennomeres; labrum with six to twelve setae; mandible with scrobe multisetose or asetose, occlusal margin with two to four terebral teeth, retinacular tooth very large, molariform; terminal palpomeres about cylindrical; pterothorax with mesonotal scutellum dorsally visible, not concealed beneath elytra; front coxal cavities open, middle and hind coxal cavities disjunct-confluent; elytra smooth, not striate dorsally, extended to apex of abdominal tergum VIII, apical margins subsinuate; metathoracic wings large to variously reduced; front tibia anisochaete, antenna cleaner sulcate, type A; abdomen with six (II–VII) pregenital sterna normally exposed, sterna III and IV separated by suture; male genitalia with parameres but similar to one another in form (slender) and in length, asetose, joined medio-dorsally to narrow jugum; ovipositor with gonocoxae rotated in retracted position, with or without ramus, gonocoxa with two gonocoxites, and gonocoxite 2 with accessory lobe, not articulated or articulated; reproductive tract with spermatheca 2 only; secretions of pygidial glands aromatic aldehydes, discharged by oozing. Larva with large prothorax with pronotum semicircular; abdominal tergum V with two or three pairs of sclerotized, hook-like projections; abdominal segment IX without urogomphi.

<==Cicindelidae [Cicindeletae, Cicindelinae, Collyridae, Collyridinae, Ctenostomidae, Mantichoridae, Megacephalinae]
|--ManticoriniVB21
| |--ManticoraB14
| | |--M. latipennis Waterhouse 1837B14
| | `--M. maxillosaL02
| `--Amblycheila Say 1830VB21, BB01
| |--A. cylindriformis (Say 1823)B14
| `--A. hoversoniB14
`--+--MegacephaliniVB21
`--+--CollyridiniVB21
| |--CollyrisB66
| | |--C. crassicornisF89
| | |--C. cribrosa [incl. C. cribrosa var. rufitarsis]F89
| | |--C. filiformis Chaud. 1864B66
| | |--C. flavicornisF89
| | |--C. formosana Bates 1866B66
| | |--C. loochooensis Kano 1929TYM08
| | `--C. ortygia [incl. C. ortygia var. cribellata]F89
| `--Tricondyla Latreille 1822VB21, LM87
| `--*T. aptera (Olivier 1790)LM87 [=Cicindela apteraLM87, Collyris apteraB35; incl. Tricondyla connataM86]
`--CicindeliniVB21

Cicindelidae incertae sedis:
Lophyra reliqua [incl. L. obliquograciliaenea]B55
Hipparidium interruptumB55
Bennigsenium nubiferum [incl. B. flavipes (preoc.)]B55
Cratohaerea confusa Basilewsky 1954B55
Prothyma concinna [incl. P. concinna var. anosignata]B55
Calochroa Hope 1838G07
Odontochila Laporte 1834F54
`--O. salvini Bates 1874F54
Habrodera Motschulsky 1862G07
`--H. capensis (Linnaeus 1764)G07
Rhysopleura Sloane 1906LM87
`--*R. orbicollis (Sloane 1904) [=Distypsidera orbicollis]LM87
Nickerlea Horn 1899LM87
|--*N. distypsideroides Horn 1899LM87
`--N. sloanei (Lea 1898) [=Cicindela sloanei]LM87
NeocicindelaH82
|--N. latecincta (White 1846)E02
`--N. tuberculata (Fabricius 1775)H82
LophyridiaFG03
|--L. caucasica (Adams 1817) [=Cicindela caucasica]FG03
`--L. sturmi (Ménétriés 1832) [=Cicindela caucasica var. sturmi]FG03
RhopaloteresB55
|--R. marshalliB55
|--R. mechowi Quedenfeldt 1883B55
| |--R. m. mechowiB55
| |--R. m. pseudomechowi Horn 1913B55
| `--R. m. transversefasciatus Horn 1913B55
|--R. nysusB55
`--R. reginaB55
OphryoderaB55
|--O. foliicornisB55
| |--O. f. foliicornisB55
| |--O. f. divergentemaculataB55
| `--O. f. trimaculataB55
`--O. rufomarginataB55
|--O. r. rufomarginata (see below for synonymy)B55
`--O. r. poggei [incl. O. maculatovittata, O. richteri]B55
DistipsideraLM87
Ctenostoma (Neoprocepalus)B14
|--C. (N.) davidsoniB14
|--C. (N.) guatemalensisB14
|--C. (N.) laeticolorB14
`--C. (N.) maculicorne (Chaudoir 1860)B14
Habroscelimorpha dorsalis (Say 1817)B14
PhaeoxanthaB14
|--P. aequinoctialis Dejean 1825B14
| |--P. a. aequinoctialisB14
| `--P. a. bifasciataB14
`--P. cruciataB14
NeocollyrisRD77
Omus Eschscholtz 1829 [incl. Leptomus Casey 1914, Megomus Casey 1914; Omini]BB01

Ophryodera rufomarginata rufomarginata [incl. O. bohemani, O. bradshawi, O. circumcinctoides, O. distanti, O. oberthueri]B55

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BB01] Ball, G. E., & Y. Bousquet. 2001. Carabidae Latreille, 1810. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr & M. C. Thomas (eds) American Beetles vol. 1. Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga, Polyphaga: Staphyliniformia pp. 32–132. CRC Press: Boca Raton.

[B55] Basilewsky, P. 1955. Carabidae (Coleoptera) de l’Angola (première partie). Diamang Publicações Culturais 27: 91–137.

[B66] Bates, H. W. 1866. On a collection of Coleoptera from Formosa sent home by R. Swinhoe, Esq., H. B. M. Consul, Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 339–355.

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d’Urville. Faune entomologique de l’océan Pacifique, avec l’illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[E02] Emberson, R. M. 2002. The beetle (Coleoptera) fauna of the Chatham Islands: additions and corrections. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 69–77.

[F89] Fleutiaux, E. 1889. Contributions a la faune Indo-Chinoise. Cicindelidae et Elateridae. 1er mémoire. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 137–146.

[F54] Franz, E. 1954. Cicindelidae aus El Salvador (Ins. Col.) Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 351–352.

[FG03] Franzen, M. & J. Gebert. 2003. Distribution of the tiger beetle Lophyridia caucasica (Adams, 1817) in Iran (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae). Zoology in the Middle East 29: 79–82.

[G07] Golding, M. R. 2007. A Pictorial Field Guide to the Beetles of Australia. Part 2: Cicindelidae. Ocean Publishing.

[H82] Helmore, D. W. 1982. Drawings of New Zealand insects. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of New Zealand 8: 1–52.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LM87] Lawrence, J. F., B. P. Moore, J. E. Pyke & T. A. Weir. 1987. Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 4. Coleoptera: Archostemata, Myxophaga and Adephaga. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[M86] Macleay, W. 1886. The insects of the Fly River, New Guinea, “Coleoptera”. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 136–157.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252–280.

[VB21] Vasilikopoulos, A., M. Balke, S. Kukowka, J. M. Pflug, S. Martin, K. Meusemann, L. Hendrich, C. Mayer, D. R. Maddison, O. Niehuis, R. G. Beutel & B. Misof. 2021. Phylogenomic analyses clarify the pattern of evolution of Adephaga (Coleoptera) and highlight phylogenetic artefacts due to model misspecification and excessive data trimming. Systematic Entomology 46: 991–1018.

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