Ciidae

Cis boleti, copyright Francisco Welter-Schultes.

Belongs within: Tenebrionoidea.

The Ciidae are a group of beetles that mostly feed as both larvae and adults on basidiomycete fruiting bodies, though some may feed on rotting vegetation (Lawrence & Britton 1991). In most species (forming the subfamily Ciinae) the antenna has eight to ten segments and bears tufts of sensilla on each segment, but the Californian Sphindocis denticollis has eleven-segmented antennae lacking sensilla (Thayer & Lawrence 2002).

Characters (from Lawrence & Britton 1991): Elongate and subcylindrical or moderately flattened to ovate and globose beetles, subglabrous or clothed with decumbent and/or erect hairs or bristles. Head more or less deflexed, usually with distinct frontoclypeal ridge which may be produced in male to form a plate or paired tubercles or horns. Antenna with eight to ten segments, two- or three-segmented club large and loose with well-developed, multipronged sensoria; maxillae with reduced lobes and fusiform palps; pronotum large, sometimes with anterior plate or paired horns in male; fore coxae transverse or projecting, trochantin concealed; fore coxal cavities externally and internally open; mid coxal cavities contiguous, laterally open; tibiae almost always lacking spurs and with spines along outer edge; fore tibia often with acute tooth or comb of spines at apex; tarsi quadramerous; abdomen with five ventrites, all free, ventrite 1 often with setose fovea in male. Larvae elongate, subcylindrical, lightly sclerotised with variable armature (usually paired, hook-like urogomphi) on T9 and pygopod-like 10th segment. Antennae very short, with long sensorium arising from near base of terminal segment; mandible often with acute, hyaline process at base; maxilla with reduced, subapical lacinial lobe.

<==Ciidae [Ciinae, Cioidae, Cisidae, Cissides, Octotemnidae, Orophyidae]
    |  i. s.: XylographusLB91
    |         PorculusTL02
    |--Sphindocis Fall 1917 [Sphindociinae]TL02
    |    `--S. denticollis Fall 1917TL02
    `--Ciinae [Orophiina, Orophiini]TL02
         |--Malacocis Gorham 1886 [incl. Brachycis Casey 1898]TL02
         |    `--M. brevicollis (Casey 1898)TL02
         |--Orthocis Casey 1898 [incl. Mellieicis Lohse 1964]TL02
         |    `--O. punctatusTL02
         |--Plesiocis Casey 1898TL02
         |    `--P. cribrumTL02
         |--Rhopalodontus Mellié 1847 [=Ropalodontus]TL02
         |    `--R. americanus Lawrence 1971TL02
         |--Ceracis Mellié 1848TL02
         |    |--C. californicusTL02
         |    `--C. thoracicornisTL02
         |--Dolichocis Dury 1919TL02
         |    |--D. indistinctus Hatch 1962TL02
         |    `--D. manitoba Dury 1919TL02
         |--Ennearthron Mellié 1847TL02
         |    |--E. aurisquamosum Lawrence 1971TL02
         |    `--E. spenceri (Hatch 1962)TL02
         |--Sulcacis Dury 1917 [incl. Entypus Redtenbacher 1848 non Dahlbom 1843]TL02
         |    |--S. curtulus (Casey 1898)TL02
         |    `--S. lengi Dury 1917TL02
         |--Hadraule Thomson 1863 [incl. Maphoca Casey 1900, Pityocis Peyerimhoff 1918]TL02
         |    |--H. blaisdelli (Casey 1900)TL02
         |    |--H. elongatula (Gyllenhal 1827)TL02
         |    `--H. explanata Lawrence 1971TL02
         |--Strigocis Dury 1917TL02
         |    |--S. bilimeki (Reitter 1878)TL02
         |    |--S. opacicollis Dury 1917TL02
         |    `--S. opalescens (Casey 1898)TL02
         |--Octotemnus Mellié 1847 [incl. Orophius Redtenbacher 1849]TL02
         |    |--O. dilutipesB70
         |    |--O. glabriculus (Gyllenhal 1827)TL02
         |    |--O. laevis Casey 1898TL02
         |    `--O. mandibularis (Gyllenhal 1813)B14
         `--Cis Latreille 1796 [incl. Eridaulus Thomson 1863, Macrocis Reitter 1878, Xestocis Casey 1898]TL02
              |--*C. boleti [=Anobium boleti]L02
              |--C. acritusTL02
              |--C. biarmatusTL02
              |--C. bilamellatusLB91
              |--C. cayensisTL02
              |--C. cervusLB91
              |--C. cornelliTL02
              |--C. cribratus Lucas 1846E12
              |--C. flavipes Lucas 1846E12
              |--C. fuscipes Mellié 1848TL02
              |--C. hystriculusTL02
              |--C. jacquemartiK98
              |--C. levetteiTL02
              |--C. puberulus Mellié 1848FS90
              |--C. punctulatus Lucas 1846E12
              |--C. reticulatusR26
              |--C. robiniophilusTL02
              |--C. stereophilusTL02
              |--C. tetracentrumTL02
              |--C. tricornis (Gorham 1883)B14
              |--C. versicolorTL02
              `--C. vitulusTL02

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B70] Britton, E. B. 1970. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 495–621. Melbourne University Press.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[FS90] Fleutiaux, E., & A. Sallé. 1890. Liste des coléoptères de la Guadeloupe et descriptions d’espèces nouvelles. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 351–484.

[K98] Klimov, P. B. 1998. A new tribe of acarid mites of the subfamily Rhizoglyphinae (Acariformes, Acaridae). Far Eastern Entomologist 59: 1–19.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[TL02] Thayer, M. K., & J. F. Lawrence. 2002. Ciidae Leach in Samouelle 1819. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 403–412. CRC Press.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *