Pherusa plumosa, from here.

Belongs within: Annelida.

The Cirratulida are a group of largely sedentary, deposit-feeding polychaete worms characterised by the possession of a single pair of peristomial palps and an eversible ventral pharynx. Members of the group include the Cirratulidae, characterised by the presence of series of simple, elongate filaments along the body.

<==Cirratuliformia [Cirratulida]H-S86
    |  i. s.: ParergodrilidaeH-S86
    |           |--Parergodrilus heideri Reisinger 1925RP07
    |           `--Stygocapitella Knöllner 1943H-S86
    |                `--S. subterranea Knoellner 1943RP07
    |    |  i. s.: Chaetozone setosaSS-P01
    |    |         TharyxH56
    |    |           |--T. multifilis Moore 1909 [incl. Cirratulus inhamatus Treadwell 1937]H56
    |    |           `--T. pacificaKBC03
    |    |--CirriformiaRP07
    |    |    |--C. chefooensis (Grube 1877) [=Cirratulus chefooensis; incl. Cirra. branchiatus Treadwell 1936]H56
    |    |    |--C. filigera (delle Chiaje 1841) (see below for synonymy)H56
    |    |    |--C. hawaiensis Hartman 1956 (see below for synonymy)H56
    |    |    |--C. luxuriosa (Moore 1904)SS07
    |    |    |--C. punctata (Grube 1859) (see below for synonymy)H56
    |    |    |--C. semicincta (Ehlers 1905) [=Cirratulus semicinctus; incl. Audouinea maculata Treadwell 1929]H56
    |    |    `--C. tentaculata (Montagu 1808) (see below for synonymy)H56
    |    `--+--Cirratulus Lamarck 1801RP07, H62
    |       |    |--*C. cirratus (Müller 1776) [=Aphrodite cirrata]H62
    |       |    |--C. elongatus Treadwell 1901H56
    |       |    `--C. spectabilis (Kinberg 1866)SS07
    |       `--+--Caulleriella parva Gillandt 1979RP07
    |          `--+--Aphelochaeta marioni (de Saint Joseph 1894)RP07
    |             `--+--CtenodrilidaeH69
    |                |    |--Ctenodrilus Claparède 1863RP07, H-S86
    |                |    |    `--C. serratus (Schmidt 1857)RP07
    |                |    |--ZeppeliniaH69
    |                |    `--Raphidrilus nemasomaH69, M62
    |                `--Dodecaceria Oersted 1843RP07, H75
    |                     |--*D. concharum Öersted 1843H62, RP07
    |                     `--D. fistulicolaH75
       |    |--Acrocirrus validusKBC03
       |    `--Macrochaeta Grube 1850H-S86
       |         |--M. clavicornis (Sars 1835)RP07
       |         `--M. multipapillata Westheide 1981H-S86
       `--+--Brada whiteavesiiPE16, PG98
          `--Flabelligeridae [Flabelligerimorpha]SS07
               |  i. s.: Mazopherusa prinosiPTV14
               |         SemioderaH56
               |           |--S. cariboum (Grube 1856) (see below for synonymy)H56
               |           `--S. glabra (Treadwell 1901) [=Stylaroides glabra]H56
               |    |--F. affinis Sars 1829RP07 (see below for synonymy)
               |    `--F. bicolorHS01
               `--+--Diplocirrus glaucus (Malmgren 1867)SS07
                  `--+--Poeobius [Poeobiidae]SS07
                     |    `--P. meseres Heath 1930SS07
                     `--+--Piromis erectaSS07
                             |--P. affinisM02
                             |--P. dubia (Treadwell 1929) [=Stylarioides dubius]H56
                             |--P. erucaM62
                             |--P. inflata (Treadwell 1914) [=Trophonia inflata; incl. T. minuta Treadwell 1914]H56
                             `--P. plumosa (Müller 1776)SS07
Boring: Dodecaceria cretaceaH75

Cirriformia filigera (delle Chiaje 1841) [=Cirrathulus filigerus; incl. Audouinea oculata Treadwell 1932, A. pygidia Treadwell 1936]H56

Cirriformia hawaiensis Hartman 1956 [=Audouinea branchiata Treadwell 1943 non Cirratulus branchiatus Treadwell 1936]H56

Cirriformia punctata (Grube 1859) [=Cirratulus punctatus; incl. Cirra. niger Hartman 1939, Cirra. nigromaculata Treadwell 1901]H56

Cirriformia tentaculata (Montagu 1808) [=Terebella tentaculata; incl. Cirratulus multicirratus Treadwell 1936, Cirra. pallidus Treadwell 1931]H56

Flabelligera affinis Sars 1829RP07 [=Siphonostoma affinisBK77; incl. F. claparediiN00, S. diplochaitosN00, Chlorhema dujardinii Giard 1880BK77, S. dujardiniBK77]

Semiodera cariboum (Grube 1856) [=Siphonostomum cariboum; incl. Stylarioides capensis americana Monro 1928, Semiodera glabra Treadwell 1928 non Stylaroides glabra Treadwell 1901]H56

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[H75] Häntzschel, W. 1975. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea Suppl. 1. Trace Fossils and Problematica 2nd ed. The Geological Society of America: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[H56] Hartman, O. 1956. Polychaetous annelids erected by Treadwell, 1891 to 1948, together with a brief chronology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 109 (2): 239–310.

[H-S86] Hartmann-Schröder, G. 1986. Polychaeta (incl. Archiannelida). In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 210–233. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H69] Hermans, C. O. 1969. The systematic position of the Archiannelida. Systematic Zoology 18 (1): 85–102.

[H62] Howell, B. F. 1962. Worms. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W144–W177. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[KBC03] Kashin, I. A., E. V. Bagaveeva & S. F. Chaplygina. 2003. Fouling communities of hydrotechnical constructions in Nakhodka Bay (Sea of Japan). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29: 267–283.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[M02] Musick, J. A. 2002. Sturgeons. Family Acipenseridae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 83–88. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[N00] Newbigin, M. I. 1900. On British species of Siphonostoma. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 190–195, pl. 4.

[PE16] Parry, L. A., G. D. Edgecombe, D. Eibye-Jacobsen & J. Vinther. 2016. The impact of fossil data on annelid phylogeny inferred from discrete morphological characters. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 283: 20161378.

[PTV14] Parry, L., A. Tanner & J. Vinther. 2014. The origin of annelids. Palaeontology 57 (6): 1091–1103.

[PG98] Probert, P. K., & S. L. Grove. 1998. Macrobenthic assemblages of the continental shelf and upper slope off the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 28: 259–280.

[RP07] Rousset, V., F. Pleijel, G. W. Rouse, C. Erséus & M. E. Siddall. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of annelids. Cladistics 23: 41–63.

[SS-P01] Steiner, G., & L. Salvini-Plawen. 2001. Acaenoplax—polychaete or mollusc? [Letter]. Nature 414: 601–602.

[SS07] Struck, T. H., N. Schutt, T. Kusen, E. Hickman, C. Bleidorn, D. McHugh & K. M. Halanych. 2007. Annelid phylogeny and the status of Sipuncula and Echiura. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7: 57.

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