Sage-leaved rock rose Cistus salvifolius, copyright Sten Porse.

Belongs within: Malvales.

The Cistaceae, rock roses, are a group of aromatic shrubs that are most diverse in the Mediterranean region with species also present in North and South America. In the last region they are represented by a single genus, Pakaraimaea, that was until recently classified with the Dipterocarpaceae. A number of species of the genera Helianthemum and Cistus are widely cultivated as ornamentals.

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Herbs to shrubs; root hairs absent; phloem not stratified; nodes 1:1; petiole bundles arcuate; cuticle waxes absent; hairs glandular, or simple, clustered, or stellate, each cell with a basal internal compartment; leaves usually opposite (occasionally spiral), lamina venation more or less conduplicate-curved, margin toothed, secondary veins pinnate or palmate, stipules present or absent; calyx and corolla more or less opposite, sepals 5, 2 outer smaller than others, petals crumpled in bud; anthers (3-)many and centrifugal; pollen often starchy; gynoecium opposite petals or median member abaxial, placentation usually parietal (occasionally axile), style hollow, stigmas small to capitate and/or lobed, dry, with multicellular multiseriate papillae; ovules (1-)2-many/carpel, straight, outer integument ca 2 cells across, inner integument 2-4 cells across, parietal tissue ca 2 cells across, nucellar cap ca 2 cells across, hypostase present; testa often mucilaginous; embryo more or less strongly curved, long, cotyledons thin, curved or folded, radicle short, stout.

    |--Tuberaria guttata [=Helianthemum guttatum]H93
    |--Pakaraimaea [Pakaramaeoideae]APG16
    |--Cistinocarpum roemeri Conwentz 1886CBH93
    |--Cistacearumpollenites Konzalova 1976CBH93
    |    |--F. arabica (Linnaeus) Spach 1836PL04
    |    |--F. procumbensH91
    |    `--F. thymifoliaPT98
    |    |--C. albidusC74
    |    |--C. creticusH93 [=C. incanus ssp. creticus (Linnaeus) Heywood 1968PL04; incl. C. villosusH93]
    |    |--C. incanus Linnaeus 1753PL04
    |    |--C. ladanifer [=C. ladaniferus (l. c.)]H93
    |    |--C. laurifoliusJK80
    |    |--C. monspeliensisC74
    |    |--C. parviflorusPT98
    |    |--C. revoliiNDA05
    |    `--C. salvifolius Linnaeus 1753PL04
         |--H. canadenseJ23
         |--H. canumH91
         |--H. ellipticumD17
         |--H. grandiflorumWM09
         |--H. greeneiH93
         |--H. nummulariumS96
         |--H. ovatumS96
         |--H. salicifoliumPT98
         |--H. scoparium [incl. H. suffrutescens]H93
         |--H. sessiliflorumD17
         `--H. stipulatumHG84

*Type species of generic name indicated


[APG16] Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1–20.

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 24 pls.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[D17] Diels, L. 1917. Beiträge zur Flora der Zentral-Sahara und ihrer Pflanzengeographie. Nach der Sammelausbeute des Freiherrn Hans Geyr von Schweppenburg. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 54 (Beiblatt 120): 51–155.

[HG84] Heller, J., & M. Gadot. 1984. Shell polymorphism of Theba pisana—the effects of rodent distribution. Malacologia 25 (2): 349–354.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255–260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[J23] James, E. 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819 and ’20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, sec’y of war: under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. From the notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say, and other gentlemen of the exploring party vol. 1. H. C. Carey & I. Lea: Philadelphia.

[JK80] John, J., & K.-P. Kolbe. 1980. The systematic position of the “Theales” from the viewpoint of serology. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 8: 241–248.

[NDA05] Nickrent, D. L., J. P. Der & F. E. Anderson. 2005. Discovery of the photosynthetic relatives of the “Maltese mushroom” Cynomorium. BMC Evolutionary Biology 5: 38.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209–223.

[S96] Schatz, H. 1996. Oribatid mites (Oribatida) in alpine dry meadows (Austria, central Alps). In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 633–635. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[SA04] Serrano, A. R. M., & C. A. S. Aguiar. 2004. Three new species of the genus Geocharis Ehlers, 1883 from Portugal (Coleoptera, Carabidae). Graellsia 60 (1): 71–80.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853–3858.

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